Backblaze B2 的 Copy File API 終於開放

BackblazeB2 算是我還蠻愛用來丟一些東西的地方 (配合他們與 Cloudflare 合作的免費頻寬)。

先前 B2 一直沒有複製檔案的功能,如果要有同樣檔案,變成得自己再上傳一次,這對於網路沒有很快的使用者會很痛苦,現在總算是提供 API 可以直接複製了:「B2 Copy File is Now Public」。

這個功能主要的文件在「b2_copy_file」。

另外這次也推出了「b2_copy_part」,針對檔案的合併所提供的 API。

AWS 的 EBS 預設型態改為 GP2 (SSD)

AWS 宣佈 EBS 的預設型態從 Standard 變成 GP2:「EBS default volume type updated to GP2」。

包括 web console 與 API 的預設值都改成 GP2:

The AWS console defaults to GP2 in all regions. On July 29th the default EBS volume type was updated in thirteen regions from Standard to GP2. Now AWS API calls for volume, image, and instance creation also default to GP2 in all regions.

GP2 是 SSD,所以可以提供比較低的 latency,而另外一個用 GP2 的好處是 i/o 的費用已經含在內了 (Standard 會另外收取費用),對於成本估算會比較簡單一些,尤其是 i/o 量比較大的時候。

RDS 支援 Storage Auto Scaling

Amazon RDS 推出了 Storage Auto Scaling:「Amazon RDS now supports Storage Auto Scaling」。

看起來傳統 RDBMS 類的都支援 (也就是非 Aurora 的這些):

Starting today, Amazon RDS for MariaDB, Amazon RDS for MySQL, Amazon RDS for PostgreSQL, Amazon RDS for SQL Server and Amazon RDS for Oracle support RDS Storage Auto Scaling.

仔細看了一下新聞稿,裡面都只有提到 scale up,沒有提到 scale down,這個功能應該是只會提昇不會下降,所以要注意突然用很多空間,再砍掉後的問題:

RDS Storage Auto Scaling automatically scales storage capacity in response to growing database workloads, with zero downtime.

RDS Storage Auto Scaling continuously monitors actual storage consumption, and scales capacity up automatically when actual utilization approaches provisioned storage capacity.

除了香港外的所有商業區域都提供:

RDS Storage Auto Scaling is available in all commercial AWS regions except in Asia Pacific (Hong Kong) and AWS GovCloud.

Amazon EBS 的預設加密機制

EBS 有選項可以預設開加密了:「New – Opt-in to Default Encryption for New EBS Volumes」。

不算太意外的,這個選項要一區一區開:

Per-Region – As noted above, you can opt-in to default encryption on a region-by-region basis.

也不太意外的,無法完全公開共用:

AMI Sharing – As I noted above, we recently gave you the ability to share encrypted AMIs with other AWS accounts. However, you cannot share them publicly, and you should use a separate account to create community AMIs, Marketplace AMIs, and public snapshots. To learn more, read How to Share Encrypted AMIs Across Accounts to Launch Encrypted EC2 Instances.

然後有些服務有自己的 EBS 設定,這次不受影響。而有些底層其實是用 EC2 的服務 (然後開 EBS) 就會直接套用了:

Other AWS Services – AWS services such as Amazon Relational Database Service (RDS) and Amazon WorkSpaces that use EBS for storage perform their own encryption and key management and are not affected by this launch. Services such as Amazon EMR that create volumes within your account will automatically respect the encryption setting, and will use encrypted volumes if the always-encrypt feature is enabled.

用 Google Docs 惡搞的方式...

看到「UDS : Unlimited Drive Storage」這個專案,利用 Google Docs 存放資料。主要的原因是因為 Google Docs 不計入 Google Drive 所使用的空間:

Google Docs take up 0 bytes of quota in your Google Drive

用這個方法可以存放不少大檔案 (像是各種 ISO image),讓人想起當年 Love Machine 的玩法 (不知道的人可以參考「愛的機器 Love machine」這篇),切割檔案後傳到某些空間以提供下載?只是這邊是用 base64 放到 Google Docs 上...

base64 的資料會比原始資料大 33%,而 Google Docs 單篇的上限大約是 710KB:

Size of the encoded file is always larger than the original. Base64 encodes binary data to a ratio of about 4:3.

A single google doc can store about a million characters. This is around 710KB of base64 encoded data.

方法不是太新鮮,但是讓人頗懷念的... XD

Amazon S3 淘汰 Path-style 存取方式的新計畫

先前在「Amazon S3 要拿掉 Path-style 存取方式」提到 Amazon S3 淘汰 Path-style 存取方式的計畫,經過幾天後有改變了。

Jeff Barr 發表了一篇「Amazon S3 Path Deprecation Plan – The Rest of the Story」,裡面提到本來的計畫是 Path-style model 只支援到 2020/09/30,被大幅修改為只有在 2020/09/30 後建立的 bucket 才會禁止使用 Path-style:

In response to feedback on the original deprecation plan that we announced last week, we are making an important change. Here’s the executive summary:

Original Plan – Support for the path-style model ends on September 30, 2020.

Revised Plan – Support for the path-style model continues for buckets created on or before September 30, 2020. Buckets created after that date must be referenced using the virtual-hosted model.

這樣大幅降低本來會預期的衝擊,但 S3 團隊希望償還的技術債又得繼續下去了... 也許再過個幾年後才會再被提出來?

AWS 推出更便宜的儲存方案 Glacier Deep Archive

AWS 推出的這個方案價錢又更低了:「New Amazon S3 Storage Class – Glacier Deep Archive」。

在這之前在 us-east-1S3 最低的方案是 Glacier Storage,單價是 USD$0.004/GB (也就是 $4/TB)。

而這次推出的 Glacier Deep Archive Storage 在同一區則是直接到 USD$0.00099/GB ($0.99/TB),大約是 1/4 的價錢。

Glacier Deep Archive 在取得時 first byte 的保證時間是 12 小時,另外最低消費是 180 天:

Retrieval time within 12 hours

先前就有的 Glacier Storage 則是可以在取用時設定取得的 pattern (會影響 first byte 的時間),而最低消費是 90 天:

Configurable retrieval times, from minutes to hours

Pricing for each of these metrics is determined by the speed at which data is requested based on three options. "Expedited" queries <250 MB are typically returned in 1-5 minutes. "Standard" queries are typically returned in 3-5 hours. "Bulk" queries are typically returned in 5-12 hours.

多一個更便宜的選擇可以用。

Cloudflare 發表 Logpush,把 log 傳出來

Cloudflare 推出了 Logpush,可以把 log 傳到 Amazon S3 或是 Google Cloud Storage 上 (目前就支援這兩個):「Logpush: the Easy Way to Get Your Logs to Your Cloud Storage」,目前是 enterprise 方案可以用:

Today, we’re excited to announce a new way to get your logs: Logpush, a tool for uploading your logs to your cloud storage provider, such as Amazon S3 or Google Cloud Storage. It’s now available in Early Access for Enterprise domains.

Logpush currently works with Amazon S3 and Google Cloud Storage, two of the most popular cloud storage providers.

以往是自己拉,需要考慮 HA 問題 (兩台小機器就可以了,機器成本是還好,但維護成本頗高),現在則是可以讓 Cloudflare 主動推上來...

我大多數的建議是 log 儘量留 (包括各種系統的 log 與 http access log)。主要是因為儲存成本一直下降 (S3 的 1TB 才 USD$23/month,如果使用 Glacier 會低到 USD$4/month),而且 log 在壓縮後會變小很多 (經常會有重複的字)。

最傳統的 AWStats 就可以看到不少資訊,如果是透過 IP address 與 User-agent,交叉配合其他 event data 就可以讓很多 machine learning 演算法取得的資訊更豐富。

Amazon EFS 的 IA Storage Class

Amazon EFS 一直找不太到好用的使用情境,因為 NFS 的關係所以大量 I/O 時的 latency issue 使得速度快不起來,而拿來堆 log 的成本又超級高...

最新推出的 storage class 則是透過提供低儲存成本的版本,解決了堆 log 這種使用情境:「New – Infrequent Access Storage Class for Amazon Elastic File System (EFS)」。

不過 EFS 不像 S3 可以直接選擇 storage class,是需要讓系統管理的:

開啟後 30 天沒有被碰過的檔案就會切過去:

Eligible Files – Files that are 128 KiB or larger and that have not been accessed or modified for at least 30 days can be transitioned to the new storage class. Modifications to a file’s metadata that do not change the file will not delay a transition.

而 latency 也會增加:

Files that have not been read or written for 30 days will be transitioned to the Infrequent Access storage class with no further action on your part. Files in the Standard Access class can be accessed with latency measured in single-digit milliseconds; files in the Infrequent Access class have latency in the double-digits.

us-east-1 為例子來說,Standard 是 USD$0.3/GB-month,而 IA 只要 USD$0.045/GB-month,但抓取時會有 USD$0.01/GB 的傳輸費用,可以看出價錢低不少。

不過文章裡沒提到什麼時候會把資料從 IA 跳回 Standard,可能得找機會問問看...

AWS 的備份服務 AWS Backup

AWS 把備份拉出來成為一個服務,AWS Backup:「AWS Backup – Automate and Centrally Manage Your Backups」。

常見的 AWS 的服務 (有資料的) 都可以放進去,包括雲端裡的 EFSRDSDynamoDBEBS,以及本地端的 Storage Gateway

在頁面上沒看到價錢,但登入 console 後可以看到說明,只有使用的 storage 費用:

With AWS Backup, you pay only for the amount of backup storage you use and the amount of backup data you restore in the month. There is no minimum fee and there are no set-up charges.