在清 Hacker News Daily 的時候看到「New York could become first state with a ‘Right to Repair’ law for electronic devices」這篇,在講紐約州有團體在推動電子產品的維修權。

先前有提過歐盟對電子產品的維修權有在推動法案 (參考「歐盟在推動的設備維修權...」這篇),確保十年內有料可以維修,後來這個法案已經生效了:「New EU ‘right to repair’ laws require technology to last for a decade」。



一樣是 Hacker News 上看到的:「Guidance to make federally funded research freely available without delay (whitehouse.gov)」,白宮的公告在「OSTP Issues Guidance to Make Federally Funded Research Freely Available Without Delay」這邊。

開頭有重點,不得限制以及收費。所以 paywall 是一定不行,另外要註冊才能看也算是一種限制,應該也會被這次的政策要求改善:

In a memorandum to federal departments and agencies, Dr. Alondra Nelson, the head of OSTP, delivered guidance for agencies to update their public access policies as soon as possible to make publications and research funded by taxpayers publicly accessible, without an embargo or cost.

時間表的部份,短期是 2023 年中更新 policy,並且在 2025 年年底前全部施行:

In the short-term, agencies will work with OSTP to update their public access and data sharing plans by mid-2023. OSTP expects all agencies to have updated public access policies fully implemented by the end of 2025.


找了一下之前寫下來跟 open access 有關的消息,從學校方面給壓力的也不少,不過我記錄下來的主要都是跟 Elsevier 的中止合約:



在「Social Media Usage by Age」這邊看到的文章,把美國人使用社群媒體的情況做成圖,資料來源是 Pew Research Center 的「Social Media Fact Sheet」這裡。

很明顯的可以看到 Google (Alphabet) 基本上就是 YouTube 一個產品吃天下,而 Facebook (Meta) 有三個產品在滲透,包括 Facebook、InstagramWhatsapp

LinkedIn 在出社會後會開始用,另外 Pinterest 這麼多老人家在用到是很驚奇 XDDD

美國聯邦政府推動的 Zero Trust 架構

看到美國總統行政辦公室發佈的「Moving the U.S. Government Toward Zero Trust Cybersecurity Principles」這個備忘錄,在講 Zero trust security model,算是讓其他聯邦單位可以依循的指引,從比較高的角度來說明聯邦政府對系統安全設計的方向。

裡面有提到「Phishing-resistant MFA」,一般的 MFA 無法防止 phishing (像是軟體 TOTP 類的 Google Authenticator 或是硬體式 TOTP 的 RSA SecurID,或是透過簡訊輸入收到的字串那種),要能夠對抗 phishing 的應該只有 U2F 或是後續的 WebAuthn 這種有把網站位置也放進 protocol 的協定。

另外提到了 RBACABAC 兩種設計,而且更偏好用 ABAC 得到更多彈性:

Currently, many authorization models in the Federal Government focus on role-based access control (RBAC), which relies on static pre-defined roles that are assigned to users and determine their permissions within an organization. A zero trust architecture should incorporate more granularly and dynamically defined permissions, as attribute-based access control (ABAC) is designed to do.

另外因為 zero trust 的設計,內部網路其實只能當作是一個傳輸媒介,不能當作是一個安全的傳輸層,任何的傳輸都需要有另外的驗證機制確保 CIA,所以從 DNS 的流量必須是透過 DNS over HTTPS 或是 DNS over TLS 的保護:

Agencies must resolve DNS queries using encrypted DNS wherever it is technically supported. This means that agency DNS resolvers must support standard encrypted DNS protocols (DNS-over-HTTPS or DNS-over-TLS), and must use them to communicate with upstream DNS resolvers.

任何 HTTP 傳輸都需要使用 HTTPS 保護,甚至是把 .gov 直接放進 HTTPS-only 清單 (應該是指 HSTS preload?):

More generally, the .gov top-level domain has announced an intent to eventually preload the entirety of the .gov domain space as an HTTPS-only zone.

不過裡面也有提到 email 的 encryption 到目前為止沒有好的方法可以確保 encryption 的使用,尤其是跟外部的人溝通:

Unlike HTTP and DNS, there is not today a clear path forward for guaranteeing that Federal emails are encrypted in transit, particularly for emails with external parties.


In addition to their own testing programs, agencies must increase their reliance on external perspectives to identify vulnerabilities that internal staff may not identify


Public vulnerability disclosure programs, which allow security researchers and other members of the general public to report security issues safely, are used widely across the Federal Government and many private-sector industries. These programs are an invaluable accompaniment to existing internal security programs and operate as a reality check on an organization’s online security posture.


印度威脅要逮捕 Facebook、WhatsApp 與 Twitter 的員工

The Wall Street Journal 上看到的,印度政府威脅 FacebookWhatsAppTwitter,如果不配合政府的要求提供資料並將內容下架,將會逮捕他們在印度的員工:「India Threatens Jail for Facebook, WhatsApp and Twitter Employees」。

這應該是透過上個月才剛過的法令:「Facebook, WhatsApp and Twitter Face New Rules in India」。


在去年殺完 Tiktok 後,上個月擴權然後這個月反過來殺這些美國的企業。


Elon Musk 退訂美國總統的 Twitter 帳號

先前因為 cjin 的這則推,跑去追蹤了 @BigTechAlert 這個帳號:

@BigTechAlert 這個帳號會把名人以及大企業的 Twitter 帳號所追蹤與推追蹤的行為找出來,然後發表在 Twitter 上面。

平常 @BigTechAlert 所抓出來的追蹤與退追大家也都習以為常,你去看 @BigTechAlert 的帳號也可以發現沒什麼 retweet & like。

但前幾天這則退訂通知讓不少人 retweet & like,因為是 Elom Musk 退追了 @POTUS 帳號 (也就是 President of the United States):


Firefox 在美國將預設開啟 DNS over HTTPS

看到 Mozilla 在「Firefox continues push to bring DNS over HTTPS by default for US users」這邊的公告,另外也可以參考 Hacker News 上的討論:「Mozilla’s DNS over HTTPs (blog.mozilla.org)」。

這次的改變是將美國的 Firefox 使用者自動啟用 DNS over HTTPS (DoH),而預設是丟給 Cloudflare

By default, this change will send your encrypted DNS requests to Cloudflare.


  • 對於進階而且有在跟重大消息的使用者,他們如果不信任 Cloudflare 的話,會主動關掉 DoH 的選項。
  • 但對於一般使用者,他們不知道這件事情,而他們本來也不會預期他們上網的 hostname 部份會被 Cloudflare 知道。

相較於 Google Chrome 是確認你現在用的 DNS 是不是在有支援 DoH 的清單內,如果是的話就會切過去使用 DoH,但不會因此改變 DNS provider,也就是不會有突然冒出來的第三者知道你瀏覽的網站。



好像是在 Twitter 上看到的,但一時間找不到是誰推的...

美國在 2010 年簽署的「Plain Writing Act of 2010」要求各種政府文件都必須用簡單的文字書寫,甚至還弄一個官方網站「Home | plainlanguage.gov」列出說明...

在網站裡面的「Use simple words and phrases」給了一個蠻長對應表,可以將一些艱澀的法律慣用詞彙換成平常常用的詞彙...

維基百科給的 Before & After 範例還蠻不錯的,在比較極端的情況下,讀起來的確輕鬆很多:

(Before) The amount of expenses reimbursed to a claimant under this subpart shall be reduced by any amount that the claimant receives from a collateral source. In cases in which a claimant receives reimbursement under this subpart for expenses that also will or may be reimbursed from another source, the claimant shall subrogate the United States to the claim for payment from the collateral source up to the amount for which the claimant was reimbursed under this subpart.

(After) If you get a payment from a collateral source, we will reduce our payment by the amount you get. If you get payments from us and from a collateral source for the same expenses, you must pay us back the amount we paid you.

美國政府發行的字型 Public Sans

Public Sans 是一套美國政府出資而產生的無襯線字型,專案放在 GitHub 上 (uswds/public-sans)。這套自行不是全部都自己刻,而是改自於 Libre Franklin Font (以 SIL Open Font License v1.1 授權,而 Public Sans 沿用同樣授權)。


Be available as a free, open source webfont on any platform.


Have a broad range of weights and a good italic.
Perform well in headlines, text, and UI.

Have good multilingual support.
Allow for good data design with tabular figures.

在 GitHub 頁面上有整理與 Libre Franklin 的差異,可以看到配合現在的呈現媒體而做了不少調整。