中研院所釋出的 CKIP 斷詞工具並沒有 Open Source 釋出

早上出門前看到,本來要寫文章說明的,在三個小時前專案的 license 從 CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 改成 GPLv3 了:「CC license not for software and source code」。下面的內容是本來整理在 CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 的情境下整理的。

在「千呼萬喚十多年!中研院終於開源釋出國產自動化中文斷詞工具」這邊看到的,一個常見的誤解是 open source 就是把程式碼放出來給大家用,這是錯誤的,(原先) CKIP 使用的 CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 並不是 open source license,因為 open source 必須是「沒有歧視」,這點可以參考「The Open Source Definition」裡面的說明:

No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor The license must not restrict anyone from making use of the program in a specific field of endeavor. For example, it may not restrict the program from being used in a business, or from being used for genetic research.

在「非商用」的這個條件下就直接觸犯 open source 的條件。相對於結巴中文分詞使用的 MIT License,可以測試的環境多很多...

即時將動畫 Upscale 到 4K 畫質的演算法


Anime4K is a state-of-the-art*, open-source, high-quality real-time anime upscaling algorithm that can be implemented in any programming language.

State of the art* as of August 2019 in the real time anime upscaling category, the fastest at acheiving reasonable quality. We do not claim this is a superior quality general purpose SISR algorithm compared to machine learning approaches.

他們提供的數據顯示 1080p -> 2160p (4K) 只要 3ms,對於 60fps 來說是相當足夠,而品質看起來也還不錯。

其中一個蠻有趣的問答是 1080p -> 2160p 反而比 480p -> 720p 簡單,因為 1080p 裡面因為有更多資料量,所以處理起來比較簡單:

Why not do PSNR/SSIM on 480p->720p upscaling
Story Time

Comparing PSNR/SSIM on 480p->720p upscales does not prove and is not a good indicator of 1080p->2160p upscaling quality. (Eg. poor performance of waifu2x on 1080p anime) 480p anime images have a lot of high frequency information (lines might be thinner than 1 pixel), while 1080p anime images have a lot of redundant information. 1080p->2160p upscaling on anime is thus objectively easier than 480p->720p.

Facebook 推出了 Hermes,為了 React Native 而生的 JS Engine

Facebook 提供了一個對 React Native 最佳化的 JS engine:「Hermes: An open source JavaScript engine optimized for mobile apps, starting with React Native」。

裡面有提到兩個比較重要的的部份是 No JIT 與 Garbage collector strategy,針對行動裝置的特性而設計:避免 JIT 產生的 overhead,以及降低記憶體使用量。


不過沒有提到 CPU usage 會上升多少,只是帶過去:

Notably, our primary metrics are relatively insensitive to the engine’s CPU usage when executing JavaScript code.

對於 Facebook 也許是可以接受的數量,但對於其他人就沒概念了... 要入坑的人自己衡量這部份的風險 XD

robots.txt 的標準化

雖然聽起來有點詭異,但 robots.txt 的確一直都只是業界慣用標準,而非正式標準,所以各家搜尋引擎加加減減都有一些自己的參數。

在經過這麼久以後,Google 決定推動 robots.txt 的標準化:「Formalizing the Robots Exclusion Protocol Specification」,同時 Google 也放出了他們解讀 robots.txt 的 parser:「Google's robots.txt Parser is Now Open Source」,在 GitHubgoogle/robotstxt 這邊可以取得。

目前的 draft 是 00 版,可以在 draft-rep-wg-topic-00 這邊看到,不知道其他搜尋引擎會給什麼樣的回饋...

CockroachDB 也拋棄 Open Source License 了

CockroachDB 的主力在於 PostgreSQL 的相容層 (包括底層資料結構,SQL 語法,以及 Protocol,所以原有的 client 不需要太多修改就可以用),並且提供橫向擴充的能力 (實作類似於 F1 與 Spanner 這些論文的功能)。

現在他們也宣佈拋棄 Open Source License 了,從本來的 Apache License 2.0 轉為他們自己定義的 Business Source License:「Why We’re Relicensing CockroachDB」。


The one and only thing that you cannot do is offer a commercial version of CockroachDB as a service without buying a license.

商業版本最終會以 open source license 釋出,但會有三年延遲 (以現在的社群速度,基本上就等於不提供了),不算太意外,但這樣的話也需要先從可用的列表上移除了...

Elasticsearch 提供免費版本的安全功能

Elasticsearch 決定將基本的安全功能從付費功能轉為免費釋出,很明顯的是受到 Open Distro for Elasticsearch 的壓力而做出的改變:「Security for Elasticsearch is now free」。

要注意的是這不是 open source 版本,只是將這些功能放到 basic tier 裡讓使用者免費使用:

Previously, these core security features required a paid Gold subscription. Now they are free as a part of the Basic tier. Note that our advanced security features — from single sign-on and Active Directory/LDAP authentication to field- and document-level security — remain paid features.

這代表 Open Distro for Elasticsearch 提供的還是比較多:

With Open Distro for Elasticsearch, you can leverage your existing authentication infrastructure such as LDAP/Active Directory, SAML, Kerberos, JSON web tokens, TLS certificates, and Proxy authentication/SSO for user authentication. An internal user repository with support for basic HTTP authentication is also avaliable for easy setup and evaluation.

Granular, role-based access control enables you to control the actions a user can perform on your Elasticsearch cluster. Roles control cluster operations, access to indices, and even the fields and documents users can access. Open Distro for Elasticsearch also supports multi-tenant environments, allowing multiple teams to share the same cluster while only being able to access their team's data and dashboards.

目前看起來還是可以朝 Open Distro for Elasticsearch 靠過去...

美國政府發行的字型 Public Sans

Public Sans 是一套美國政府出資而產生的無襯線字型,專案放在 GitHub 上 (uswds/public-sans)。這套自行不是全部都自己刻,而是改自於 Libre Franklin Font (以 SIL Open Font License v1.1 授權,而 Public Sans 沿用同樣授權)。


Be available as a free, open source webfont on any platform.


Have a broad range of weights and a good italic.
Perform well in headlines, text, and UI.

Have good multilingual support.
Allow for good data design with tabular figures.

在 GitHub 頁面上有整理與 Libre Franklin 的差異,可以看到配合現在的呈現媒體而做了不少調整。

Google 內部的系統 (以及外部可能的 Open Source 替代方案)

Hacker News Daily 上看到的 jhuangtw-dev/xg2xg,整理了 Google 內部服務以及可能的替代方案。

主要是提供給離開 Google 的工程師,替代方案中包括了 Google 自己公佈的,已經其他的 open source 替代方案:

by ex-googlers, for ex-googlers - a lookup table of similar tech & services

A handy lookup table of similar technology and services to help ex-googlers survive the real world :) pull-requests very welcomed. Please do not list any confidential projects!


AWS 對 Elastic Stack 實作免費的開源版本 Open Distro for Elasticsearch

Elasticsearch 的主體是 Apache License 2.0,但 Elastic Stack (以前叫做 X-Pack) 則是需要付費使用的功能,其中包括了不少跟安全有關的項目在裡面,所以其實有不少人抱怨過產品凌駕安全性的問題,像是「ES 6.3: X-Pack Licence is "Expired" on New Install」這篇官方回應的:

A basic license is not entitled to security features. To try out security you need to use a trial license or obtain a subscription.

AWS 這次則是出手實作了他們自己的版本,叫做 Open Distro for Elasticsearch:「New – Open Distro for Elasticsearch」。

如果你看文章說明,他列出來的 feature 全部都是在 Elastic Stack 這頁上列出來的項目,針對性的意思其實很清楚了:

In addition to Elasticsearch and Kibana, the first release includes a set of advanced security, event monitoring & alerting, performance analysis, and SQL query features (more on those in a bit).


Security – This plugin that supports node-to-node encryption, five types of authentication (basic, Active Directory, LDAP, Kerberos, and SAML), role-based access controls at multiple levels (clusters, indices, documents, and fields), audit logging, and cross-cluster search so that any node in a cluster can run search requests across other nodes in the cluster.

目前支援 Docker Image 與 RPM,之後看看有沒有機會出 deb 版本:

In addition to the source code repo, Open Distro for Elasticsearch and Kibana are available as RPM and Docker containers, with separate downloads for the SQL JDBC and the PerfTop CLI.

這樣應該會讓 Elasticsearch 的服務模式受到很大的影響,來看 Elastic N.V. Ordinary Shares Real Time Stock Quotes 這邊會掉多少...

各種 Java 的版本

看到這則 tweet,提到 Java 的支援度:


目前看起來如果要 Java 8 只有三個方案,其中有過 TCK 的只有兩個,看起來用 Amazon Corretto 算是個還不錯的選擇?