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Etsy 介紹的 Cache Smearing

Etsy 的 engineering blog 上提到了他們怎麼設計 cache 機制:「How Etsy caches: hashing, Ketama, and cache smearing」。

使用 consistent hash 已經是基本款了,文章裡花了一些篇幅介紹為什麼要用 consistent hash。

後半段則是有了 consistent hash 後會遇到的問題,也就是講 hot key 怎麼處理:有些資料非常熱 (常常被存取),就算用 consistent hash 也還是有可能搞爆單一機器。

他們做了幾件事情,第一件事情是設計 cache smearing 機制,把單一資料加上 random key,使得不同的 key 會打散到不同的機器上:

Let’s take an example of a hot key popular_user_data. This key is read often (since the user is popular) and is hashed to pool member 3. Cache smearing appends a random number in a small range (say, [0, 8)) to the key before each read or write. For instance, successive reads might look up popular_user_data3, popular_user_data1, and popular_user_data6. Because the keys are different, they will be hashed to different hosts. One or more may still be on pool member 3, but not all of them will be, sharing the load among the pool.

第二件事情則是監控哪些 key 比較熱門:

We’ve seen this problem many times over the years, using mctop, memkeys, and our distributed tracing tools to track down hot keys.

第三件事情是維護 hot key 的清單 (不是每個 key 都會上 cache smearing):

We manually add cache smearing to only our hottest keys, leaving keys that are less read-heavy efficiently stored on a single host.

是個當規模大到單一 hot key 會讓單台伺服器撐不住時的 workaround...

AWS 環境裡面提供 NTP Service 了 (Amazon Time Sync Service)

以前在 AWS 環境裡都要自己架設兩台可以連外的 NTP server,然後將內部機器指到這兩台上,現在可以用現成的了:「Keeping Time With Amazon Time Sync Service」。

服務放在 169.254.169.123

You can access the service via the link local 169.254.169.123 IP address. This means you don’t need to configure external internet access and the service can be securely accessed from within your private subnets.

然後也有提到 leap second 的解法,用的解法是 leap smearing:

Leap seconds are known to cause application errors and this can be a concern for many savvy developers and systems administrators. The 169.254.169.123 clock smooths out leap seconds some period of time (commonly called leap smearing) which makes it easy for your applications to deal with leap seconds.

先前 AWS 也有 leap time,但不包括 Amazon EC2 這些系統 (EC2 裡的時間是獨立的),不過還是可以看一下 AWS 處理 leap time 的方式,因為這次 NTP Service 就會拿去用了。

最近一次 leap time 是 2016 年底的「Look Before You Leap – December 31, 2016 Leap Second on AWS」,處理的方式跟 2015 年時的方法還是一樣:「Look Before You Leap – The Coming Leap Second and AWS (Updated)」。

類似於下圖左上角這張的變化:

然後全區開放,都可以用了:

This service is provided at no additional charge and is immediately available in all public AWS regions to all instances running in a VPC.

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