Home » Posts tagged "service" (Page 12)

AWS 推出新的 Cost Explorer API,不過 API 不是重點啦...

AWS 的「New – Interactive AWS Cost Explorer API」這篇文章在一開頭就提到了 Cost Explorer API 的情況,所以他們要推出新的 API 改進:

We launched the AWS Cost Explorer a couple of years ago in order to allow you to track, allocate, and manage your AWS costs. The response to that launch, and to additions that we have made since then, has been very positive. However our customers are, as Jeff Bezos has said, “beautifully, wonderfully, dissatisfied.”

不過讓我笑出來的是選圖啊... 大概是 Jeff Barr 夠硬的關係,直接選了這張:

我喜歡這張 XD (尤其配合著出現在官方 blog 上的時候)

AWS 推出 AWS Secret Region

AWS 推出給情報單位用的 AWS Secret Region:「Announcing the New AWS Secret Region」。

AWS GovCloud (US) 類似的架構,這個雲的範圍再小一些,給情報單位以及有對應授權的單位用的:

The AWS Secret Region is readily available to the U.S. Intelligence Community (IC) through the IC’s Commercial Cloud Services (C2S) contract with AWS.

The AWS Secret Region also will be available to non-IC U.S. Government customers with appropriate Secret-level network access and their own contract vehicles for use of the AWS Secret Region.

AWS 提供 Hybrid Cloud 環境下 DNS 管理的說明

不知道為什麼出現在 browser tab 上,不知道是哪邊看到的... AWS 放出了一份文件,在講 hybrid cloud 環境下當你同時有一般 IDC 機房,而且使用內部 domain 在管理時,網路與 AWS 打通後要怎麼解決 DNS resolver 的問題:「Hybrid Cloud DNS Solutions for Amazon VPC」。

有些東西在官方的說明文件內都寫過,但是是 AWS 的特殊設計,這邊就會重複說明 XDDD

像是這份文件裡提到 Amazon DNS Server 一定會在 VPC 的 base 位置加二 (舉例來說,10.0.0.0/16 的 VPC,Amazon DNS Server 會在 10.0.0.2):

Amazon DNS Server
The Amazon DNS Server in a VPC provides full public DNS resolution, with additional resolution for internal records for the VPC and customer-defined Route 53 private DNS records.4 The AmazonProvidedDNS maps to a DNS server running on a reserved IP address at the base of the VPC network range, plus two. For example, the DNS Server on a 10.0.0.0/16 network is located at 10.0.0.2. For VPCs with multiple CIDR blocks, the DNS server IP address is located in the primary CIDR block.

在官方文件裡,則是在「DHCP Options Sets」這邊提到一樣的事情:

When you create a VPC, we automatically create a set of DHCP options and associate them with the VPC. This set includes two options: domain-name-servers=AmazonProvidedDNS, and domain-name=domain-name-for-your-region. AmazonProvidedDNS is an Amazon DNS server, and this option enables DNS for instances that need to communicate over the VPC's Internet gateway. The string AmazonProvidedDNS maps to a DNS server running on a reserved IP address at the base of the VPC IPv4 network range, plus two. For example, the DNS Server on a 10.0.0.0/16 network is located at 10.0.0.2. For VPCs with multiple IPv4 CIDR blocks, the DNS server IP address is located in the primary CIDR block.

另外也還是有些東西在官方的說明文件內沒看過,像是講到 Elastic Network Interface (ENI) 對 Amazon DNS Server 是有封包數量限制的;這點我沒在官方文件上找到,明顯在量太大的時候會中獎,然後開 Support Ticket 才會發現的啊 XDDD:

Each network interface in an Amazon VPC has a hard limit of 1024 packets that it can send to the Amazon Provided DNS server every second.

Anyway... 這份文件裡面提供三種解法:

  • Secondary DNS in a VPC,直接用程式抄一份到 Amazon Route 53 上,這樣 Amazon DNS Server 就可以直接看到了,這也是 AWS 在一般情況下比較推薦的作法。
  • Highly Distributed Forwarders,每台 instance 都跑 Unbound,然後針對不同的 domain 導開,這樣可以有效避開單一 ENI 對 Amazon DNS Server 的封包數量限制,但缺點是這樣的設計通常會需要像是 Puppet 或是 Chef 之類的軟體管理工具才會比較好設定。
  • Zonal Forwarders Using Supersede,就是在上面架設一組 Unbound 伺服器集中管理,透過 DHCP 設定讓 instance 用。但就要注意量不能太大,不然 ENI 對 Amazon DNS Server 的限制可能會爆掉 XD

都可以考慮看看...

新的 DNS Resolver:9.9.9.9

看到新的 DNS Resolver 服務,也拿到了還不錯的 IP address,9.9.9.9:「New “Quad9” DNS service blocks malicious domains for everyone」,服務網站是「Quad 9 | Internet Security and Privacy in a Few Easy Steps」,主打宣稱過濾已知的危險站台...

由政府單位、IBM 以及 Packet Clearing House 成立的:

The Global Cyber Alliance (GCA)—an organization founded by law enforcement and research organizations to help reduce cyber-crime—has partnered with IBM and Packet Clearing House to launch a free public Domain Name Service system.

也就是說,後面三家都不是專門做網路服務的廠商... 於是就會發現連 Client Subnet in DNS Queries (RFC 7871) 都沒提供,於是查出來的地區都不對,這對使用 DNS resolver 位置分配 CDN 節點的服務很傷啊... (或是其他類似服務)

這是 GooglePublic DNS (8.8.8.8) 查出來的:

;; ANSWER SECTION:
i.kfs.io.               576     IN      CNAME   kwc.kkcube.com.country.mp.kkcube.com.
kwc.kkcube.com.country.mp.kkcube.com. 21599 IN CNAME TW.kwc.kkcube.com.
TW.kwc.kkcube.com.      188     IN      CNAME   i.kfs.io.cdn.cloudflare.net.
i.kfs.io.cdn.cloudflare.net. 299 IN     A       104.16.244.238
i.kfs.io.cdn.cloudflare.net. 299 IN     A       104.16.245.238

;; Query time: 28 msec
;; SERVER: 8.8.8.8#53(8.8.8.8)
;; WHEN: Sat Nov 18 05:30:23 CST 2017
;; MSG SIZE  rcvd: 181

這是 Quad9 (9.9.9.9) 查出來的:

;; ANSWER SECTION:
i.kfs.io.               1800    IN      CNAME   kwc.kkcube.com.country.mp.kkcube.com.
kwc.kkcube.com.country.mp.kkcube.com. 42702 IN CNAME US.kwc.kkcube.com.
US.kwc.kkcube.com.      300     IN      CNAME   i.kfs.io.cdn.cloudflare.net.
i.kfs.io.cdn.cloudflare.net. 300 IN     A       104.16.245.238
i.kfs.io.cdn.cloudflare.net. 300 IN     A       104.16.244.238

;; Query time: 294 msec
;; SERVER: 9.9.9.9#53(9.9.9.9)
;; WHEN: Sat Nov 18 05:30:27 CST 2017
;; MSG SIZE  rcvd: 181

再來一點是,在科技領域相信政府單位通常都是一件錯誤的事情,我 pass... XD

各家 Session Replay 服務對個資的處理

Session Replay 指的是重播將使用者的行為錄下來重播,市面上有很多這樣的服務,像是 User Replay 或是 SessionCam

這篇文章就是在討論這些服務在處理個資時的方式,像是信用卡卡號的內容,或是密碼的內容,這些不應該被記錄下來的資料是怎麼被處理的:「No boundaries: Exfiltration of personal data by session-replay scripts」,主要的重點在這張圖:

後面有提到目前防禦的情況,看起來目前用 adblock 類的軟體可以擋掉一些服務,但不是全部的都在列表裡。而 DNT 則是裝飾品沒人鳥過:

Two commonly used ad-blocking lists EasyList and EasyPrivacy do not block FullStory, Smartlook, or UserReplay scripts. EasyPrivacy has filter rules that block Yandex, Hotjar, ClickTale and SessionCam.

At least one of the five companies we studied (UserReplay) allows publishers to disable data collection from users who have Do Not Track (DNT) set in their browsers. We scanned the configuration settings of the Alexa top 1 million publishers using UserReplay on their homepages, and found that none of them chose to honor the DNT signal.

Improving user experience is a critical task for publishers. However it shouldn’t come at the expense of user privacy.

AWS 主動提高 Amazon EC2 與 Amazon EBS 的 SLA

AWS 主動提高 Amazon EC2Amazon EBSSLA:「Announcing an increased monthly service commitment for Amazon EC2」。

Amazon EC2 is announcing an increase to the monthly service commitment in the EC2 Service Level Agreement (“SLA”), for both EC2 and EBS, to 99.99%. This increased commitment is the result of continuous investment in our infrastructure and quality of service. This change is effective immediately in all regions, and is available to all EC2 customers.

之前是 99.95% monthly (參考前幾天的頁面:「Amazon EC2 SLA」),現在拉到 99.99% 了。第一階的賠償條件也從 99.95%~99% 改成 99.99%~99% 了 (賠 10%)。

Stream 對 .io 的感冒

Stream 的人寫了一篇「Why Stream Stopped Using .IO Domain Names for Production Traffic」表達他們對 .io 的感冒...

主要是因為 9/20 爛掉的情況不太妙。第一個是 .io 爛掉了兩個小時 (以月來算 SLA 就等於直接掉了 0.2% uptime,變成不到 99.8%),第二個是爛掉時 server 傳回的不是 SERVFAIL,而是 NXDOMAIN

The outage lasted for almost 2 hours, during which 1/5th of DNS queries for any .getstream.io record would fail.

他們的解法是改到 .com 上,畢竟影響的時候應該會修得比較快。另外文章裡也有延伸提到 Amazon Route 53 爛掉時要怎麼辦,如果他們真的決定要解決的話,應該是會拿出像「StackOverflow 對於多 DNS 商的同步方式...」或是「GitHub 也自己搞了一套管理多家 DNS 的程式...」的搞法吧。

不過這的確是當初選 .io 沒預料到的...

在北美盜版 IPTV 產生的流量比 BitTorrent 還多

算是前陣子的新聞,在北美地區的盜版 IPTV 流量比 BitTorrent 的流量還多:「IPTV Piracy Generates More Internet Traffic Than Torrents」。

During peak hours, 6.5% of all downstream traffic on fixed networks is generated by TV piracy services.

To put this into perspective; this is more than all BitTorrent traffic during the peak hours, which was “only” 1.73% last year, and dropping.

如果把影音網站都考慮進去,最大的還是 YouTubeNetflix 這兩個啦,不過盜版的量也不小...

然後也有把最大的量分析出來,這裡面最大的量是 Indian Star Plus HD,應該是印度裔或是印度籍的人看家鄉的東西?

The most viewed of all in North America, with 4.6% of all pirated TV traffic, is the Indian Star Plus HD.

不過 Sandvine 一直都有方法分析整個北美流量,讓人感覺不太舒服...

Dropbox 的 IPv6 轉移過程

Dropbox 描述了他們目前將整個服務轉移到 IPv6 的過程 (看起來是進行式,而不是完成式):「Deploying IPv6 in Dropbox Edge Network」。

看到比較有趣的是這幾幾張圖:


IPv6 request percentage across all Dropbox services


IPv6 request percentage increased as we enabled IPv6 for more services


Countries ranked by IPv6 Request Percentage

差不多有 1/6 的量了,這樣其實不算少,是個開始...

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