Elsevier 限制加州大學的存取權限

三月的時候加州大學系統 (UC) 因為 Elsevier 不接受 open access 的條件而公開宣佈不續約 (參考「加州大學宣佈不與 Elsevier 續約」),後來 Elsevier 應該是試著看看有沒有機會繼續合作,所以在這段期間還是一直提供服務給加州大學系統。

前幾天在 Hacker News 上看到「Elsevier cuts off UC’s access to its academic journals (latimes.com)」,總算是確定要動手了:「In act of brinkmanship, a big publisher cuts off UC’s access to its academic journals」。

不過也不是直接拔掉,而是限制存取權,看不到新東西 (以 2019/01/01 為界):

As of Wednesday, Elsevier cut off access by UC faculty, staff and students to articles published since Jan. 1 in 2,500 Elsevier journals, including respected medical publications such as Cell and the Lancet and a host of engineering and scientific journals. Access to most material published in 2018 and earlier remains in force.

UC 提出的商業模式是讓投稿者負擔費用,而存取者不需要負擔,與現有的商業模式剛好相反。UC 提出的模式鼓勵「知識的散佈」,而現有的商業模式則是反過來,希望透過知識的散佈而賺~大~錢~發~大~財~:

UC demanded that the new contract reflect the principle of open access — that work produced on its campuses be available to all outside readers, for free.

That was a direct challenge to the business model of Elsevier and other big academic publishers. Traditionally, the publishers accept papers for publication for free but charge steep subscription fees. UC is determined to operate under an alternative model, in which researchers pay to have their papers published but not for subscriptions.

另外在 Hacker News 上的 comment 裡看到一些專案也正在進行,像是歐洲的「Plan S」也是在推動 open access:

The plan requires scientists and researchers who benefit from state-funded research organisations and institutions to publish their work in open repositories or in journals that are available to all by 2021.

另外「PubPub · Community Publishing」也是 open source 領域裡蠻有趣的計畫,後面看起來也有不少學術單位在支持。

GrabFood 用定位資料修正餐廳的資訊

Grab 的「How we harnessed the wisdom of crowds to improve restaurant location accuracy」這篇是他們的 data team 整理出來,如何使用既有的資料快速的修正餐廳資訊。裡面提到的方法不需要用到 machine learning,光是一些簡單的統計算法就可以快速修正現有的架構。

這些資訊其實是透過司機用的 driver app 蒐集來的,在 driver app 上有大量的資訊傳回伺服器 (像是定時回報的 GPS 位置,以及取餐狀態),而這些司機因為地緣關係,腦袋裡的資訊比地圖會準不少:

One of the biggest advantages we have is the huge driver-partner fleet we have on the ground in cities across Southeast Asia. They know the roads and cities like the back of their hand, and they are resourceful. As a result, they are often able to find the restaurants and complete orders even if the location was registered incorrectly.

所以透過這些資訊他們就可以反過來改善地圖資料,像是透過司機按下「取餐」的按鈕的地點與待的時間,就可以估算餐聽可能的位置,然後拿這個資訊比對地圖上的資料,就很容易發現搬家但是地圖上沒更新的情況:

Fraction of the orders where the pick-up location was not “at” the restaurant: This fraction indicates the number of orders with a pick-up location not near the registered restaurant location (with near being defined both spatially and temporally as above). A higher value indicates a higher likelihood of the restaurant not being in the registered location subject to order volume

Median distance between registered and estimated locations: This factor is used to rank restaurants by a notion of “importance”. A restaurant which is just outside the fixed radius from above can be addressed after another restaurant which is a kilometer away.

另外也有不少其他的改善 (像是必須在離餐聽某個距離內才能點「取餐」,這個「距離」會因為餐聽可能在室內商場而需要的調整),整個成果就會反應在訂單的取消率大幅下降:

整體看起來是系統產生清單後讓人工後續處理 (像是打電話去店家問?),但這個方式所提供的清單準確度應該很高 (因為司機不會沒事跟自己時間過不去,跑到奇怪地方按下取餐),用這些資料跑簡單的演算法就能夠快速修正不少問題...

歐洲研究機構的資助者推動研究論文的開放存取

在「Radical open-access plan could spell end to journal subscriptions」這邊看到歐洲 11 個研究機構資助者成立了「cOAlition S」,推動研究論文的開放存取。

目標是在 2020 年開始,由這些機構所資助的研究都必須投在符合完全開放條件的平台上:

cOAlition S signals the commitment to implement, by 1 January 2020, the necessary measures to fulfil its main principle: “By 2020 scientific publications that result from research funded by public grants provided by participating national and European research councils and funding bodies, must be published in compliant Open Access Journals or on compliant Open Access Platforms.

而現在大約只有 15%:

According to a December 2017 analysis, only around 15% of journals publish work immediately as open access (see ‘Publishing models’) — financed by charging per-article fees to authors or their funders, negotiating general open-publishing contracts with funders, or through other means.

用這種方式降低那些收錢才能下載的平台的影響力...

Facebook 自己找人研究,Social Media 是否對人類有害 XDDD

之前看到「Hard Questions: Is Spending Time on Social Media Bad for Us?」這篇,一直不知道要怎麼吐槽... 然後看到 Twitter 上的這則 tweet XDDD

既視感太重了,找了一下其他行業對應的資料:

真的不知道怎麼吐槽 XDDD

CMU 推出 Product Management 的課程

CMUCS (Computer Science) 發的新聞稿:「Carnegie Mellon Offers New Master's Degree in Product Management」。

副標也清楚寫出是一年的課程:

One-Year Program Turns Computer Professionals Into "CEOs of the Product"

除了 CMU CS 外,也結合了 CMU 的 Tepper Business School 一起開:

A joint program of the university's School of Computer Science (SCS) and Tepper School of Business, the Master of Science in Product Management (MSPM) program will start January 2018.

另外一個不同角度的 Product Management。

Humble Bundle 對抗信用卡盜刷的方法

Humble Bundle 說明他們如何對抗信用卡盜刷的方法,主要是不斷的降低風險,然後讓人介入的機會降低 (因為人事成本很高):「How Humble Bundle stops online fraud」。

其中第一點是特別想提的:

Our first line of defense is a machine-learning-based anti-abuse startup called Sift Science, which we’ve been training for years across 55,000,000 transactions. Given how many orders we process, Sift Science has a really good idea when someone is up to no good. The model adapts daily as we get more data.

Sift Science 在 2014 的時候提過:「偵測信用卡交易是否為盜刷的服務」。做的事情很簡單,你把大量的資料傳給 Sift Science,包括了各種使用者身份資訊,以及信用卡資料,Sift Science 可以透過 Machine Learning 的方法告訴你這筆交易的風險,讓你進一步的判斷。

其實不少家都有做類似的服務,像是 MaxMindminFraud (就是做 GeoIP database 很有名的那家公司的另外一個產品)。當交易量很大的時候是個很有趣的應用,降低處理盜刷後續處理的成本。

超過一半的心理研究都無法重製結果

應該是前陣子被 Nuzzel 推薦 2015 八月的老新聞,這個研究在 Nature 上發表:「Over half of psychology studies fail reproducibility test」。

這個研究重複了 98 篇原創研究來重新實驗:

In the biggest project of its kind, Brian Nosek, a social psychologist and head of the Center for Open Science in Charlottesville, Virginia, and 269 co-authors repeated work reported in 98 original papers from three psychology journals, to see if they independently came up with the same results.

結果在 100 次的實驗 (其中有 2 個是重複的) 發現只有 39 個實驗結果被重製出來:

According to the replicators' qualitative assessments, as previously reported by Nature, only 39 of the 100 replication attempts were successful. (There were 100 completed replication attempts on the 98 papers, as in two cases replication efforts were duplicated by separate teams.)

這成功率其實頗低,如果實驗無法被重製,就不能算科學研究...

芝加哥的高中將 Computer Science 列入畢業要求

芝加哥的高中將 Computer Science 列入畢業要求:「Computer science could become graduation requirement for CPS students」。

看起來沒有標準,有的學校以基本的 HTML 編寫為主:

Claypool announced the proposed requirement outside a technology classroom at Curie, where he'd earlier spent some time talking to introductory computer science students about the day's lesson on basic HTML coding.

Leslie Lamport 拿下 2013 年圖靈獎 (Turing Award)

Leslie Lamport - A.M. Turing Award Winner

For fundamental contributions to the theory and practice of distributed and concurrent systems, notably the invention of concepts such as causality and logical clocks, safety and liveness, replicated state machines, and sequential consistency.

分散式系統領域的老大與 LaTeX 的發明人...