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Amazon ECS 的 Service Discovery

AWS 宣佈了 Amazon ECS 也支援 Route 53 提供的 Service Discovery 了:「Introducing Service Discovery for Amazon ECS」。

也就是說現在都整合好了... 比較一下先前需要自己包裝起來套用的方式會少不少功夫:

Previously, to ensure that services were able to discover and connect with each other, you had to configure and run your own service discovery system or connect every service to a load balancer. Now, you can enable service discovery for your containerized services with a simple selection in the ECS console, AWS CLI, or using the ECS API.

AWS 在 2016 年的時候有寫一篇「Service Discovery for Amazon ECS Using DNS」在講怎麼透過事件的觸發配合 AWS Lambda 把服務掛上去或是移除掉:

Recently, we proposed a reference architecture for ELB-based service discovery that uses Amazon CloudWatch Events and AWS Lambda to register the service in Amazon Route 53 and uses Elastic Load Balancing functionality to perform health checks and manage request routing. An ELB-based service discovery solution works well for most services, but some services do not need a load balancer.

現在看起來都可以改用 Auto Naming API 了...

Amazon Route 53 的 Auto Naming API 可以指到 CNAME 位置了

Amazon Route 53 的 Auto Naming API 可以拿來跑 Service Discovery (參考先前的「用 Amazon Route 53 做 Service Discovery」這篇),當時是 A/AAAA/SRV record,現在則可以註冊 CNAME 了:「Amazon Route 53 Auto Naming Announces Support for CNAME Record Type and Alias to ELB」。

最直接的影響就是 ELB 的部份了,透過 ELB 處理前端的話,覆載平衡以及數量限制的問題就會減輕很多 (之前是靠 Round-robin DNS 打散,而且限制一次最多回應五個 record):

Beginning today, you can use the Amazon Route 53 Auto Naming APIs to create CNAME records when you register instances of your microservices, and your microservices can discover the CNAMEs by querying DNS for the service name. Additionally, you can use the Amazon Route 53 Auto Naming APIs to create Route 53 alias records that route traffic to Amazon Elastic Load Balancers (ELBs).

用 Amazon Route 53 做 Service Discovery

Amazon Route 53 的新功能,可以解決以前自己要建立 Service Discovery 服務的工作:「Amazon Route 53 Releases Auto Naming API for Service Name Management and Discovery」。官方的文件在「Using Autonaming for Service Discovery」這邊。

不過目前有些限制,一個 namespace (domain name) 目前只能有五個服務:

DNS settings for up to five records.

然後 DNS 回應時,最多回八個 record:

When Amazon Route 53 receives a DNS query for the name of an instance, such as backend.example.com, it responds with up to eight IP addresses (for A or AAAA records) or up to eight SRV record values.

回應八個 record,但應該是可以註冊超過八個吧... (i.e. 每次都回不一樣)

自建服務 (像是 Cassandra 或是 ScyllaDB) 可以直接用這個服務掛上去,就不用自己架 Consul 了。

目前支援了這四區,亞洲不在這波提供範圍:

Amazon Route 53 Auto Naming is available in US East (N. Virginia), US East (Ohio), US West (Oregon), and EU (Ireland) regions.

AWS 提供 Hybrid Cloud 環境下 DNS 管理的說明

不知道為什麼出現在 browser tab 上,不知道是哪邊看到的... AWS 放出了一份文件,在講 hybrid cloud 環境下當你同時有一般 IDC 機房,而且使用內部 domain 在管理時,網路與 AWS 打通後要怎麼解決 DNS resolver 的問題:「Hybrid Cloud DNS Solutions for Amazon VPC」。

有些東西在官方的說明文件內都寫過,但是是 AWS 的特殊設計,這邊就會重複說明 XDDD

像是這份文件裡提到 Amazon DNS Server 一定會在 VPC 的 base 位置加二 (舉例來說,10.0.0.0/16 的 VPC,Amazon DNS Server 會在 10.0.0.2):

Amazon DNS Server
The Amazon DNS Server in a VPC provides full public DNS resolution, with additional resolution for internal records for the VPC and customer-defined Route 53 private DNS records.4 The AmazonProvidedDNS maps to a DNS server running on a reserved IP address at the base of the VPC network range, plus two. For example, the DNS Server on a 10.0.0.0/16 network is located at 10.0.0.2. For VPCs with multiple CIDR blocks, the DNS server IP address is located in the primary CIDR block.

在官方文件裡,則是在「DHCP Options Sets」這邊提到一樣的事情:

When you create a VPC, we automatically create a set of DHCP options and associate them with the VPC. This set includes two options: domain-name-servers=AmazonProvidedDNS, and domain-name=domain-name-for-your-region. AmazonProvidedDNS is an Amazon DNS server, and this option enables DNS for instances that need to communicate over the VPC's Internet gateway. The string AmazonProvidedDNS maps to a DNS server running on a reserved IP address at the base of the VPC IPv4 network range, plus two. For example, the DNS Server on a 10.0.0.0/16 network is located at 10.0.0.2. For VPCs with multiple IPv4 CIDR blocks, the DNS server IP address is located in the primary CIDR block.

另外也還是有些東西在官方的說明文件內沒看過,像是講到 Elastic Network Interface (ENI) 對 Amazon DNS Server 是有封包數量限制的;這點我沒在官方文件上找到,明顯在量太大的時候會中獎,然後開 Support Ticket 才會發現的啊 XDDD:

Each network interface in an Amazon VPC has a hard limit of 1024 packets that it can send to the Amazon Provided DNS server every second.

Anyway... 這份文件裡面提供三種解法:

  • Secondary DNS in a VPC,直接用程式抄一份到 Amazon Route 53 上,這樣 Amazon DNS Server 就可以直接看到了,這也是 AWS 在一般情況下比較推薦的作法。
  • Highly Distributed Forwarders,每台 instance 都跑 Unbound,然後針對不同的 domain 導開,這樣可以有效避開單一 ENI 對 Amazon DNS Server 的封包數量限制,但缺點是這樣的設計通常會需要像是 Puppet 或是 Chef 之類的軟體管理工具才會比較好設定。
  • Zonal Forwarders Using Supersede,就是在上面架設一組 Unbound 伺服器集中管理,透過 DHCP 設定讓 instance 用。但就要注意量不能太大,不然 ENI 對 Amazon DNS Server 的限制可能會爆掉 XD

都可以考慮看看...

Amazon Route 53 對地區的微調功能

Amazon Route 53 推出新功能,針對地區微調資源的比重:「Amazon Route 53 Traffic Flow Announces Support For Geoproximity Routing With Traffic Biasing」。

範例大致上說明了這個功能的能力,假設你在兩個點都有服務可以提供,你可以利用這個功能微調某個比率到某個點:

For example, suppose you have EC2 instances in the AWS US East (Ohio) region and in the US West (Oregon) region. When a user in Los Angeles browses to your website, geoproximity routing will route the DNS query to the EC2 instances in the US West (Oregon) region because it's closer geographically. If you want a larger portion of users in the middle of the United States to be routed to one region, you can specify a positive bias for that region, a negative bias for the other region, or both.

有點 CDN 的想法在裡面...

Amazon Route 53 支援 CAA record 了

Amazon Route 53 宣佈支援 CAA record 了:「Announcement: Announcement: Amazon Route 53 now supports CAA records」、「Amazon Route 53 now supports CAA records」。

這是一個被動性的 workaround,要求 CA 本身要支援 DNS CAA,所以他沒辦法防止 CA 本身作惡誤簽,但因為負作用與技術債的可能性不高,在 CA/Browser Forum 上被通過強制要求支援了。(參考「未來 CA 將會強制要求檢查 DNS CAA record」)

Gandi 的 DNS 服務也支援了 (要透過 export mode,參考「How can I add a CAA record?」),不過 Linode 還沒做...

Amazon Route 53 將會加緊支援 DNS CAA

看到 Amazon Route 53 要支援 DNS CAA 的消息:「Announcement: Announcement: CAA Record Support Coming Soon」。

裡面有提到 CA/Browser Forum 的決議,要求各瀏覽器支援 DNS CAA:

On March 8, 2017, the Certification Authority and Browser Forum (CA/Browser Forum) mandated that by September 8, 2017, CA’s are expected to check for the presence of a CAA DNS record and, if present, refuse issuance of certificates unless they find themselves on the whitelist <https://cabforum.org/2017/03/08/ballot-187-make-caa-checking-mandatory/>.

DNS CAA 可以設定哪些 SSL certificate 可以發出你的證書,除了自己以外,也可以讓第三者比較容易確認是否有誤發的行為:

We have seen a lot of interest in Amazon Route 53 support for Certification Authority Authorization (CAA) records, which let you control which certificate authorities (CA) can issue certificates for your domain name.

GitHub 也自己搞了一套管理多家 DNS 的程式...

StackOverflow 團隊發表完自己開發管理 DNS 的程式後 (參考「StackOverflow 對於多 DNS 商的同步方式...」),GitHub 也來參一腳:「Enabling DNS split authority with OctoDNS」。

可以看到 GitHub 用了兩家的系統 (AWSRoute 53Dyn 的服務):

;; AUTHORITY SECTION:
github.com.             172800  IN      NS      ns1.p16.dynect.net.
github.com.             172800  IN      NS      ns3.p16.dynect.net.
github.com.             172800  IN      NS      ns2.p16.dynect.net.
github.com.             172800  IN      NS      ns4.p16.dynect.net.
github.com.             172800  IN      NS      ns-520.awsdns-01.net.
github.com.             172800  IN      NS      ns-421.awsdns-52.com.
github.com.             172800  IN      NS      ns-1707.awsdns-21.co.uk.
github.com.             172800  IN      NS      ns-1283.awsdns-32.org.

GitHub 的 OctoDNS 用 YAML 管理:

octodns:
  type: A
  values:
    - 1.2.3.4
    - 1.2.3.5
zones:
  github.com.:
    sources:
      - config
    targets:
      - dyn
      - route53

有種當初 Dyn 被打趴後大家硬是想個解法的產物... @_@

StackOverflow 對於多 DNS 商的同步方式...

他們的解法是設計出一套 DSL (Domain Specific Language),然後從 DSL 轉出各 DNS 商的格式:「Introducing DnsControl – “DNS as Code” has Arrived」。

stackoverflow.com 來說,可以看到有同時使用 AWSRoute 53GoogleCloud DNS

;; ANSWER SECTION:
stackoverflow.com.      36458   IN      NS      ns-cloud-e2.googledomains.com.
stackoverflow.com.      36458   IN      NS      ns-358.awsdns-44.com.
stackoverflow.com.      36458   IN      NS      ns-1033.awsdns-01.org.
stackoverflow.com.      36458   IN      NS      ns-cloud-e1.googledomains.com.

於是他們就用 DSL 管理:

D(“stackoverflow.com”, REG_NAMEDOTCOM, DnsProvider(R53), DnsProvider(GCLOUD),
    A(“@”, “198.252.206.16”),
    A(“blog”, “198.252.206.20”),
    CNAME(“chat”, “chat.stackexchange.com.”),
    CNAME(“www”, “@”, TTL(3600)),
    A(“meta”, “198.252.206.16”)
)

這套程式碼在「StackExchange/dnscontrol」這邊,但這樣搞有種微妙的感覺... 不考慮直接用兩家有支援 AXFR 架構的 DNS 商來架設嗎?這樣就只要用 BIND 這類已經很熟悉的軟體設定就好?

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