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GitHub 在 2/28 遭受的攻擊...

GitHub 在 2/28 遭受 DDoS 攻擊,蠻快就把事故報告丟出來了:「February 28th DDoS Incident Report」。

不過跟 GitHub 其他文章不太一樣,這篇算是 PR 稿吧,簡單來說就是花錢買 Akamai Prolexic 的過濾服務解決... Akamai 方的 PR 稿則是在「Memcached-fueled 1.3 Tbps attacks - The Akamai Blog」這邊可以看到。

17:21 UTC 發現問題,然後判斷超過 100Gbps,所以 17:26 決定讓 Akamai Prolexic 接管過濾:

At 17:21 UTC our network monitoring system detected an anomaly in the ratio of ingress to egress traffic and notified the on-call engineer and others in our chat system. This graph shows inbound versus outbound throughput over transit links:

Given the increase in inbound transit bandwidth to over 100Gbps in one of our facilities, the decision was made to move traffic to Akamai, who could help provide additional edge network capacity. At 17:26 UTC the command was initiated via our ChatOps tooling to withdraw BGP announcements over transit providers and announce AS36459 exclusively over our links to Akamai. Routes reconverged in the next few minutes and access control lists mitigated the attack at their border. Monitoring of transit bandwidth levels and load balancer response codes indicated a full recovery at 17:30 UTC. At 17:34 UTC routes to internet exchanges were withdrawn as a follow-up to shift an additional 40Gbps away from our edge.

就這樣而已,完全就是 PR 稿 XDDD

總算把手上的 Trac 1.0 升級到 1.2 了...

就如同上一篇提到的,Trac 在 1.1.1 後新增了 time 格式,所以本來的 DateFieldPlugin 有些資料要轉換。我這邊只有用在 Due Date,所以就是轉 due_date 的資料而已。

先把 due_date 都改成 due_date_bak

UPDATE ticket_custom SET name = 'due_date_bak' WHERE name = 'due_date';

然後重新計算資料,這邊是因為所有的系統都是 UTC,所以直接轉就可以了:

INSERT INTO ticket_custom (ticket, name, value) SELECT ticket, 'due_date', LPAD(UNIX_TIMESTAMP(STR_TO_DATE(value, '%Y-%m-%d')) * 1000000, 18, '0') FROM ticket_custom WHERE name = 'due_date_bak';

而我的 Report 有用到 due_date 欄位的東西,本來是 c.value 直接輸出,現在要改成:

FROM_UNIXTIME(CONVERT(c.value / 1000000, UNSIGNED INTEGER), '%Y-%m-%d') AS due_date

Trac 1.2 相較於 1.0 最不習慣的地方應該是修改界面的位置改變了,現在 Add Comment 變成在 Modify 下面,有點不太習慣,但之後用久了應該就會習慣了。其他的修一修改一改都會動了...

PostgreSQL 10 發表

PostgreSQL 10 發表,有不少重要的功能 (進步):「PostgreSQL 10 Released」。

首先提到的是 Logical Replication:

Logical Replication - A publish/subscribe framework for distributing data

以往內建的 replication 是 block level change (同步哪個 block 改變的內容),對於版本不同的 PostgreSQL 就會痛。所以在 10 之前,想要處理 PostgreSQL 版本不同的問題都會使用第三方套件 (一種常見的情境就是資料庫的版本升級)。在 10 內建支援 Logical Replication 後就不需要掛其他套件了:

Logical replication extends the current replication features of PostgreSQL with the ability to send modifications on a per-database and per-table level to different PostgreSQL databases. Users can now fine-tune the data replicated to various database clusters and will have the ability to perform zero-downtime upgrades to future major PostgreSQL versions.

於是就可以達到 zero-downtime upgrade,這對於商業維運考量是個很重要的進展。

另外一個是 Improved Query Parallelism (在 9.6 就有,現在又再改善了),針對可平行化的 CPU-bounded SQL query 可以利用多 CPU 大幅加速,這點也是目前在 MySQL 上還沒看到的:

PostgreSQL 10 provides better support for parallelized queries by allowing more parts of the query execution process to be parallelized. Improvements include additional types of data scans that are parallelized as well as optimizations when the data is recombined, such as pre-sorting. These enhancements allow results to be returned more quickly.

上面提到這兩點其實對於某些需求是相輔相成的。

因為很多報表分析是可平行化的 CPU-bounded SQL query,但以前在 RDBMS 都不能被平行運算,於是很多單位就會想要倒出來到其他類型的資料庫運算 (以現在比較紅的產品,像是 Amazon RedshiftAmazon Athena,或是 BigQuery,甚至是丟進 ELK 裡)。但你用 PostgreSQL 又會痛在沒辦法很方便的把資料同步拉出來... (於是就會稍微妥協,用 cron job 每天倒資料)

現在 10 的這兩個功能剛好從兩個面向解決:一個是對於剛開使用 PostgreSQL 的人,他們可以繼續只用 PostgreSQL 撐久一點,因為報表需求的 SQL query 快很多;另外一方面也讓目前用 cron job 每天倒資料的人有了同步的選擇 (用 replication 同步到其他系統上)。

再來是 Quorum Commit for Synchronous Replication 這個功能,把分散式架構中需要「正確性」的底層技術做起來:

PostgreSQL 10 introduces quorum commit for synchronous replication, which allows for flexibility in how a primary database receives acknowledgement that changes were successfully written to remote replicas. An administrator can now specify that if any number of replicas has acknowledged that a change to the database has been made, then the data can be considered safely written.

整體來說,PostgreSQL 10 有非常多進步,而且這些進步對於商業營運考量都很有幫助...

歐盟對於盜版是否帶來傷害的研究

歐盟在 2014 年做了關於盜版與銷量的研究,結果一直被壓到最近才發表出來 (於是就大概可以猜到結論了...):「EU Piracy Report Suppression Raises Questions Over Transparency」。

“In general, the results do not show robust statistical evidence of displacement of sales by online copyright infringements,” the study notes.

甚至:

The study found that piracy had a slightly positive effect on the videogames industry, suggesting that those who play pirate games eventually become buyers of official content.

另外也描述了現有電影與 TV-series 定價策略偏高:

“Overall, the analysis indicates that for films and TV-series current prices are higher than 80 per cent of the illegal downloaders and streamers are willing to pay,” the study notes.

難怪被壓著...

AWS 的稽核報告服務:AWS Artifact

以往要取得 AWS 的稽核報告都必須簽署 NDA 並透過 support ticket 取得 (或是找窗口拿),現在 AWS 把這件事情做成一個服務:「Introducing AWS Artifact: Speeding Access to Compliance Reports」。

服務叫做 AWS Artifact,還是要簽保密協議,不過電子化了:

You can start downloading the audit reports in the AWS Management Console today. Many of the documents are confidential and require you to accept Amazon’s confidentiality terms and conditions, but after you review and agree to those terms, you will be granted instant access to review documents.

這樣取得資料就可以透過系統直接拉出來了:

To document the current and historical compliance of the AWS infrastructure and services, many AWS customers provide compliance reports—including those for ISO, SOC, and PCI—to their auditors or regulators.

Mozilla 的人提出討論,把 Debian 上的 Iceweasel 改名回 Firefox

2006 年時因為 Mozilla 的人認為 Debian 改了太多東西 (以及其他原因),不應該使用 Mozilla Firefox 這個帶有商標的名稱,要求 Debian 改名 (事情的經過可以參考維基百科上的「Mozilla software rebranded by Debian」條目)。

而在九年後,最近 Mozilla 的人在 Debian 上開了一個 bug report,討論是否還需要維持 Iceweasel 這個名字:「#815006 - Renaming Iceweasel to Firefox」。

Debian 這邊的人也提出了很多不一樣的意見 (尤其是對 Mozilla 的商標使用規範),目前還在爭論...

Amazon 首次公佈 Amazon Web Services (AWS) 的財報資訊

在「Amazon Finally Discloses Cloud Services Sales, Showing 49% Jump」這篇提到 Amazon 首次在財報上公開 AWS 的營收資訊:

The first-ever disclosure of results from the Amazon Web Services division showed revenue increased 49 percent from a year earlier. AWS cranked out operating income of $265 million for Amazon, helping offset losses in other businesses. Net losses for the enlarged company came in at $57 million.

Amazon 的公開資訊可以參考「Amazon.com Announces First Quarter Sales up 15% to $22.72 Billion」這篇。可以看得出來到處在燒錢,但 AWS 本身是賺錢的...

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