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自建 Mail System 的難度

Hacker News 上的「Ask HN: Is it possible to run your own mail server for personal use?」這篇道出了現在自建 mail system 的難度。作者遇到信件常常被各大 mail 服務歸類成 spam:

The problem is making sure my mail is not marked as spam by the major MTAs out there, gmail and hotmail both mark my mails as spam.

整理一下現在自己建 mail system 要做到哪些事情:

  • 確認 IP (包括 IPv4/IPv6) 沒有列入任何 Open Relay 清單中。
  • 確認 IP 的反解可以查出對應的正解。
  • 確認 SPF 設定。
  • 確認送出去的信件有 DKIM 簽名,而且 DNS 也有設上對應的設定。
  • 確認 TLS 的發送與接收都正常。
  • 確認 DMARC 機制正確運作。

如同「Exercising Software Freedom in the Global Email System」這邊講的,現在要自己搞 mail system 超累...

用 Go 寫的 Tor Relay Server

Zite 上看到的「Implementing a Tor relay from scratch」,用 Go 寫的 Tor Relay Server。

會跳下去用 Go 寫是因為效能上的考量:

[...], but the lack of AES-NI instructions on the CPUs cause a significant slowdown.

但因為一個 IP 只能跑兩個 instance,這就有點痛了:

To maximize the amount of relayed data, it is normal to simply run multiple instances of the program, up to two per IP address.


My final goal was to beat the Tor speed record, which was at roughly 200 megabytes per second.

成果就是直接吃滿 2Gbps (250MBytes/sec),而且 CPU 只用了 60%:

[...] He set up a server with my relay and within a few days we had broken the Tor speed record with a nice 250 megabytes per second, effectively maxing out the network link. CPU usage was at a nice 60% across 12 cores. But his relay also suffered from the memory issues and had to be restarted every few days.

作者的程式碼放在 GitHub 上,之後應該會有人跳進去改寫:「A fast implementation of the Tor OR code, in Go」。

Mozilla 加入 Tor Relay 的行列

Mozilla 宣佈了他們提供硬體與網路,提昇 Tor 的隱私性:「Deploying tor relays」。可以在「Results for mozilla」這邊看到這一波有十二台上線了。

架構上完全獨立於目前的 production 環境 (所有的硬體與網路設備),這是 Mozilla 提供的網路架構說明:


像是單一組織不應該提供太多 bandwidth,這可以當做是避嫌:

A single organization shouldn’t be running more than 10Gbps of traffic for a middle relay (and 5Gbps for an exit node).

一個 Tor 節點需要兩個月的時候逐漸讓整個網路使用:

A new Tor instance (identified by its private/public key pair) will take time (up to 2 months) to use all its available bandwidth.

目前 Tor 的程式效能限制:

A Tor process (instance) can only push about 400Mbps.

這是 Tor 的安全限制:

A single public IP can only be shared by 2 Tor instances


Listen on well known ports like 80 or 443