CTO 解釋 Prime Video 的那篇文章

先前在「Amazon Prime Video 捨棄 AWS Step Functions 回頭用 EC2 與 ECS 省錢的文章」這篇裡面有提到 Prime Video 團隊寫的文章,有點負面 PR 的感覺。

而讓人意外的是 的 CTO Werner Vogels 也寫了一篇文章提到這件事情:「Monoliths are not dinosaurs」。

從標題可以看到他是針對 monolith 架構以及其他的架構在討論,而不是在講 AWS 成本問題 (這反而是原本 Prime Video 那篇文章在標題宣傳的),另外也講了一些管理面上的東西,也就是文章裡面的副標題,以及兩段粗體字:

Building evolvable software systems is a strategy, not a religion. And revisiting your architectures with an open mind is a must.

If you hire the best engineers, you should trust them to make the best decisions.

there is not one architectural pattern to rule them all.

至於算不算是提油... 就見仁見智了。

Amazon Prime Video 捨棄 AWS Step Functions 回頭用 EC2 與 ECS 省錢的文章

昨天在 Hacker News 上熱烈討論的文章,是一篇三月就放出來,但昨天被丟上來意外的熱烈討論,在講 Amazon Prime Video 的團隊改寫程式,把 AWS Step Functions 拔掉,並且回頭用 EC2ECS 而省下大量 AWS 費用的文章討論:「Scaling up the Prime Video audio/video monitoring service and reducing costs (」,原文在「Scaling up the Prime Video audio/video monitoring service and reducing costs by 90%」,Internet Archive 的備份Archive Today 的備份

先看文章的部分,裡面提到了他們用 AWS Step Functions,但意外的貴:

The initial version of our service consisted of distributed components that were orchestrated by AWS Step Functions. The two most expensive operations in terms of cost were the orchestration workflow and when data passed between distributed components.

然後改寫程式把所有東西都放在單一 process 裡面跑就好,用標準的 EC2 或是 ECS 就可以 scale 很好,而且也省錢:

To address this, we moved all components into a single process to keep the data transfer within the process memory, which also simplified the orchestration logic. Because we compiled all the operations into a single process, we could rely on scalable Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) and Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS) instances for the deployment.

可以看出起因是一開始設計時的 overdesign,把可以簡單處理的東西拆開,另外加上雲端在這塊收費特別貴而導致成本爆增... 這件事情偶而會發生,尤其是比較新的東西會沒注意到成本,通常在上線發現不太對的時候就會安排 refactor 掉。

但如果是 Amazon 自家集團的其他團隊出來抱怨,就有很棒的 PR 效果了,所以 Hacker News 上就看到有人在猜可能過不久後文章就會不見 XD (但文章紅了以後應該就不會不見 XD):

My word. I'm sort of gob smacked this article exists.

I know there are nuances in the article, but my first impression was it's saying "we went back to basics and stopped using needless expensive AWS stuff that caused us to completely over architect our application and the results were much better". Which is good lesson, and a good story, but there's a kind of irony it's come from an internal Amazon team. As another poster commented, I wouldn't be surprised if it's taken down at some point.

很政治不正確的文章 XD

以之前的經驗來說,AWS 上類似的東西還包括了 NAT Gateway,這東西只適合在有強資安需求 (像是法規要求),而且需要連外的流量很少的時候適合。

NAT Gateway 在新加坡 ap-southeast-1 要 $0.059/hr (美金,所以大約是 $42.48/mo),以及 US$0.045/GB 的處理費用,所以假設你每天只有 100GB (平均 10Mbps),就等於是 3TB/mo,要 $135/mo。這樣整包就 $172.48/mo 了。

如果讓 EC2 機器直接連去 internet 抓資料的話,這些費用就是 $0,你只要付無論是有 NAT Gateway 或是沒有 NAT Gateway 的 outbound traffic 費用部分 (大多是各種 TCP/TLS/HTTP header)。

比較省成本的解法是用 security group 對 outbound traffic 開放特定的流量來解。

另外一種方式還是 NAT,但是是自己架設 HA 的 NAT service,像是 2015 年的文章「The Right Way to set up NAT in EC2」提到的方法。

這個方法以現在的機種來說,兩台 t4g.nano 的機器加上 EBS 不到 $10/mo,唯一要注意的應該是網路頻寬雖然可以 burst 到 5Gbps,但他的網路頻寬是 credit 機制,當 credit 用完的時候 t4g.nano 記得是剩下 100Mbps 左右?不過真的有這個量的時候機器也可以往上開大一點...

另外還有很多「好用」的雲端服務,但看到帳單後就變得「不好用」的雲端服務... 在用之前先算一下成本就會發現了。

Tailscale 放鬆免費版的使用限制,以及商業版的計算方式

昨天在 Hacker News 上注意到的:「Changes to Tailscale Pricing and Plans (」,Tailscale 宣佈了新的免費與收費方式 (直接叫做 Pricing v3):「Pricing v3, plans, packages, and debugging」。

這次有許多改變,首先是免費版本來只能一個使用者使用,現在變成三個使用者可以在同一個 tailnet 裡面,這對於超級早期的 startup 方便不少,另外家庭用戶也可以受益。

另外一個是擴大「免費」的定義,本來的「免費」只有在完全免費的方案裡面用,一個人是免費,但五個人會收五個人的費用;現在變成「既然在 Pricing v3 我說三個人以下免費,那五個人的方案裡面還是有三個免費的名額,我就只收額外的兩個人的費用」,而且只有 active user 才會收:

That is, if you have a 5-person team at work, the first three are still free. You’d pay for only the 2 additional users (and only if they’re active, more on that below).

然後是拔掉限制 (包括「No more limits on subnet routers」與「No more limits on admin accounts」),以及放鬆限制 (包括「More free nodes, and twice as many nodes per user」)。

所以看起來 Tailscale 現在的策略是成長,趁這波調價時做了一波 PR...

Zoom 不提供 End-to-end Encryption 給免費版用戶

Zoom 解釋免費版將不會有 End-to-end encryption 的時候,大家都傻翻了:「Zoom's Commitment to User Security Depends on Whether you Pay It or Not」,這邊 Bruce Schneier 引用了 Bloomberg 對 Zoom 的 CEO 袁征的訪談:「Zoom Transforms Hype Into Huge Jump in Sales, Customers」。

Corporate clients will get access to Zoom’s end-to-end encryption service now being developed, but Yuan said free users won’t enjoy that level of privacy, which makes it impossible for third parties to decipher communications.

“Free users for sure we don’t want to give that because we also want to work together with FBI, with local law enforcement in case some people use Zoom for a bad purpose,” Yuan said on the call.


Cloudflare 也推出自己的 Speed Test 服務

Cloudflare 推出了自己的 Speed Test 服務:「Test your home network performance」。

這個服務跟 Netflix 推出的 類似,測試的是使用者端到 Netflix (或是 Cloudflare) 中間的速度,主要的目的還是公關 (PR),所以看看就好,實際上用 Speedtest 測出來會比較有參考價值,而且可以選擇不同的點測試...

不過這讓我想到之前有人測出來遠傳會對偵測使用者要使用 Speedtest 測試時開放速限的情況 (像是「遠傳吃到飽只有 Speedtest 沒限速」這篇),然後就有各種定時去打 Speedtest 觸發開放速限的方法...

目前好像只剩下這篇活著,內文提到的是 Android 上的方法,另外推文有人提到 iOS 下的方法:「[心得] 在Android破解遠X限速」,如果有遇到的可以用看看...

微軟開源 1983 年版的 GW-BASIC

微軟用 MIT License 放出 1983 年版的 GW-BASIC:「Microsoft Open-Sources GW-BASIC」。

這次放出來程式看起來是 x86 assembly,不過放出來的版本好像也不能算是「原始」的版本,而是從 "master implementation" 轉譯出來的版本:

This source was ‘translated’?

Each of the assembly source files contains a header stating This translation created 10-Feb-83 by Version 4.3

Since the Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) of the early processors used in home and personal computers weren’t spectacularly different from one another, Microsoft was able to generate a substantial amount of the code for a port from the sources of a master implementation. (Alas, sorry, we’re unable to open-source the ISA translator.)

主要還是 PR,然後帶一些考古價值...

Facebook 員工爆料內部密碼存了明碼

Krebs on Security 這邊看到的:「Facebook Stored Hundreds of Millions of User Passwords in Plain Text for Years」,Facebook 官方的回應在「Keeping Passwords Secure」這邊。

幾個重點,第一個是範圍,目前已經有看到 2012 的資料都有在內:

The Facebook source said the investigation so far indicates between 200 million and 600 million Facebook users may have had their account passwords stored in plain text and searchable by more than 20,000 Facebook employees. The source said Facebook is still trying to determine how many passwords were exposed and for how long, but so far the inquiry has uncovered archives with plain text user passwords dating back to 2012.

另外的重點是這些資料已經被內部拿來大量搜尋 (喔喔):

My Facebook insider said access logs showed some 2,000 engineers or developers made approximately nine million internal queries for data elements that contained plain text user passwords.

另外是 Legal 與 PR 都已經啟動處理了,對外新聞稿會美化數字,降低傷害:

“The longer we go into this analysis the more comfortable the legal people [at Facebook] are going with the lower bounds” of affected users, the source said. “Right now they’re working on an effort to reduce that number even more by only counting things we have currently in our data warehouse.”


Renfro said the company planned to alert affected Facebook users, but that no password resets would be required.

去年的另外一則新聞可以交叉看:「Facebook’s security chief is leaving, and no one’s going to replace him」:

Instead of building out a dedicated security team, Facebook has dissolved it and is instead embedding security engineers within its other divisions. “We are not naming a new CSO, since earlier this year we embedded our security engineers, analysts, investigators, and other specialists in our product and engineering teams to better address the emerging security threats we face,” a Facebook spokesman said in an email. Facebook will “continue to evaluate what kind of structure works best” to protect users’ security, he said.

看起來又要再換一次密碼了... (還好已經習慣用 Password Manager,所以每個站都有不同密碼?)

喔對,另外補充一個概念,當他們說「我們沒有證據有人存取了...」的時候,比較正確的表達應該是「我們沒有稽核這塊... 所以沒有證據」。

Amazon 西雅圖辦公室拿隔壁棟 Data Center 的廢熱當空調

Amazon 的其中一個辦公室拿隔壁 data center 的廢熱借來當自己辦公室的空調:「Amazon to use data centre waste heat to warm corporate offices」,原始報導在「The super-efficient heat source hidden below Amazon's Seattle headquarters」。除了嘗試省電省成本以外,對企業形象也比較好...

隔壁 Westin Building Exchange 的地址是「2001 6th Ave #300, Seattle, WA 98121」,辦公室則是在「2040 6th Ave, Seattle, WA 98121」,無論是從地址上看,或是 Google Maps 上可以看,都可以看出來兩棟就在旁邊而已,拉管線就簡單很多了。

預定二十五年省 80M 度電,所以一年大約是 3.2M 度,以「Seattle, WA Electricity Rates | Electricity Local」這邊給的數字來算,商業用店每度是 USD$0.068,每年大約省下 USD$217,600 (所以每年大約可以省下台幣六百萬),以 3800 人的辦公室來說其實有點微妙,不過以 PR 的角度還看其實就很划算了 XDDD:

It is expected, over the course of 25 years, to save approximately 80 million kWh of electricity use by Amazon.


StackOverflow 上離開 Vim 方法的文章...

被拿出來當 PR 宣傳了:「Stack Overflow: Helping One Million Developers Exit Vim」。

由於 Vim 是 Unix-like 系統一定會內建的 editor,所以常常被拿來放在 tutorial 裡面 (考慮到普及性,但完全不熟的初學者就...),或是不小心在輸入 vipw 或是 visudo 之類的指令就中獎了:

可以看到 pageview 破一百萬次了 XDDD 而且流量也都很穩定:


然後做交叉分析,看這些卡在 Vim 的人平常是看什麼其他的文章:

回到資料分析的角度來看,這些東西可以透過有 cookie 的 access log 做到。有 access log 後可以用 Google CloudBigQuery,也可以用 AWS 家的 Amazon Athena 做。