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Netflix 對 Landing Page 的效能改善計畫...

幹掉 React (噗):

官方帳號丟戰文出來... 後面就有人開始亂 XDDD

不過先拉回來看... 依照說明,其他頁面都還是跑 React,只有 Landing Page 被改寫,看起來 Landing Page 的 TTI (Time to Interactive) 是他們的 KPI,所以就被拿出來另外處理了...

當然也有可能有其他的陰謀論 (而且我覺得可能性是在的):因為之前 React 的專利問題,變成之後 Facebook 如果真的出手提出告訴,會以惡意侵權來告 (因為鬧這麼大以後,沒有理由裝作不知道了)。這次只換 Landing Page 可以當作是試水溫練功 (累積 migration 的經驗),後續再換內頁...

Matt Mullenweg 決定對 React 的專利議題投下反對票

React 的專利問題繼續燒... (可以參考「React 的專利授權議題」,不過陸陸續續還有發生一些事情沒寫...)

Facebook 表態他們不會修改 React 的條款後,Matt Mullenweg (WordPress 的共同創造人,以及 WordPress.com 現在的老大) 直接宣佈了 Gutenberg (WordPress 新的 editor) 將全面停用 React 改用新的 library 開發:

[...] I'm here to say that the Gutenberg team is going to take a step back and rewrite Gutenberg using a different library. It will likely delay Gutenberg at least a few weeks, and may push the release into next year.

算是相當大的一個決策改變...

這件事情剛好讓人想到當年 MovableType 因為 license 問題而失勢 (而讓 WordPress 長起來),究竟 React 會不會逐漸被取代呢...

React 的專利授權議題

ASF (Apache Software Foundation) 全面禁止 Facebook 的 BSD+PATENTS 後 (「Apache Foundation 宣佈禁止使用 Facebook BSD+Patents 的軟體」),整件事情開始熱起來了...

簡單來說,Facebook 有意為之,而且不打算撤回這個有攻擊性的授權模式,參考「Explaining React's license」這邊官方的說明以及有人寫了一篇解讀:「If you’re a startup, you should not use React (reflecting on the BSD + patents license)」。

Facebook 內的意見其實也不一樣,像是 Yarn 之所以沒有 PATENTS 是因為爭取出來的:

接下來應該會有更多爭議討論了...

Apache Foundation 宣佈禁止使用 Facebook BSD+Patents 的軟體

在「RocksDB Integrations」這邊討論到 RocksDBFacebook 所使用的 Facebook BSD+Patents License。

不過因為 RocksDB 最近在換 license (從 Facebook BSD+Patents 換到 Apache License, Version 2.0),移除了 PATENTS 內的限制,需要看 PATENTS 的舊檔案可以在 PATENTS 這邊看到。

Chris Mattmann 正式發出決議禁用 Facebook BSD+Patents License。(參考最後)

另外也提到了 Facebook 是故意埋下這些限制:

Note also Roy's comment that he has discussed the matter with FB's counsel and the word is that the FB license is intentionally incompatible. It is hard to make the argument that it is compatible after hearing that. Pragmatically speaking, regardless of any semantic shaving being done, having a statement like that from the source of the license is very daunting. If they think it is incompatible, we need to not try to wheedle and convince ourselves it is not.

這個 license 之後應該會有更多挑戰...

Hi,

As some of you may know, recently the Facebook BSD+patents license has been
moved to Category X (https://www.apache.org/legal/resolved#category-x).
Please see LEGAL-303 [1] for a discussion of this. The license is also referred
to as the ROCKSDB license, even though Facebook BSD+patents is its more
industry standard name.

This has impacted some projects, to date based on LEGAL-303
and the detective work of Todd Lipcon:

Samza, Flink, Marmotta, Kafka and Bahir

(perhaps more)

Please take notice of the following policy:

o No new project, sub-project or codebase, which has not
  used Facebook BSD+patents licensed jars (or similar), are allowed to use
  them. In other words, if you haven't been using them, you
  aren't allowed to start. It is Cat-X.

o If you have been using it, and have done so in a *release*,
  you have a temporary exclusion from the Cat-X classification thru
  August 31, 2017. At that point in time, ANY and ALL usage
  of these Facebook BSD+patents licensed artifacts are DISALLOWED. You must
  either find a suitably licensed replacement, or do without.
  There will be NO exceptions.

o Any situation not covered by the above is an implicit
  DISALLOWAL of usage.

Also please note that in the 2nd situation (where a temporary
exclusion has been granted), you MUST ensure that NOTICE explicitly
notifies the end-user that a Facebook BSD+patents licensed artifact exists. They
may not be aware of it up to now, and that MUST be addressed.

If there are any questions, please ask on the legal-discuss@a.o
list.

Thanks.

Cheers,
Chris Mattmann
VP Legal Affairs

[1] https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/LEGAL-303

MP3 專利全數過期

看到有人提到,查了維基百科上面的 MP3 條目,看起來在 4/16 就全部都過期了:

The basic MP3 decoding and encoding technology is patent-free in the European Union, all patents having expired there by 2012 at the latest. In the United States, the technology became substantially patent-free on 16 April 2017 (see below).

If the longest-running patent mentioned in the aforementioned references is taken as a measure, then the MP3 technology became patent-free in the United States on 16 April 2017 when U.S. Patent 6,009,399, held by and administered by Technicolor, expired.

The three exceptions are: U.S. Patent 5,878,080, expired February 2017; U.S. Patent 5,850,456, expired February 2017; and U.S. Patent 5,960,037, expired 9 April 2017.

算是可喜可賀?

Google 自動駕駛車保護行人而申請的專利

在「Google patent: Glue would stick pedestrian to self-driving car after collision」這邊看到因為自動駕駛車的發明才有可能做到的專利。

一般的情況下,在汽車撞到行人後,駕駛會急忙停下來,而可能會導致後方車輛的追撞,而且可能會導致行人直接飛出去造成更多的傷害。這個專利規劃在車輛前端使用特殊的黏性膠,再透過減速讓行人黏在上面停下來:

The front region of the vehicle may be coated with a specialized adhesive that adheres to a pedestrian, and thus holds the pedestrian on the vehicle in the unfortunate event that the front of the vehicle comes into contact with the pedestrian,

The adhesion of the pedestrian to the vehicle may prevent the pedestrian from bouncing off.

專利的示意圖:

VENUE Act 對專利蟑螂的反擊

EFF 的「We Can't Keep Waiting: Pass the VENUE Act This Year」這篇寫的還蠻清楚的,VENUE Act (S. 2733) 是一個看起來頗有效的 workaround,先上這個 workaround 降低專利蟑螂的攻勢。

專利蟑螂 (通常是原告) 可以選擇任意一個聯邦法庭提出控告:

As the law stands now, patent owners have almost complete control over which federal district to file a case in. That’s a major problem.

而專利蟑螂會挑選對原告最有利的地區來提出控告,也就是美國德克薩斯東區聯邦地區法院 (U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Texas),這對被告方很不利:

According to the Mercatus Center and George Mason University, nearly half of all patent cases are filed in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Texas. That’s more than 70 times the average number of patent cases heard in other federal judicial districts.

Respected academics have identified evidence that procedures in the Eastern District of Texas unnecessarily favor plaintiffs and impose significant, unnecessary costs on companies and individuals accused of infringement, however questionable the patents and demands may be.

而 VENUE Act 則是拔掉這個武器,必須在與被告相關的主要地區提告。

密碼系統的 Monoculture

這篇文章講到最近密碼系統的現象:「On the Impending Crypto Monoculture」。

目前常在用的密碼系統包括了 RSA、DH、ECDH、ECDSA、SHA-2、AES 這些演算法,而最近這幾年大家在推廣使用的演算法都出自於同一個人手裡,Dan Bernstein,也就是 djb:

A major feature of these changes includes the dropping of traditional encryption algorithms and mechanisms like RSA, DH, ECDH/ECDSA, SHA-2, and AES, for a completely different set of mechanisms, including Curve25519 (designed by Dan Bernstein et al), EdDSA (Bernstein and colleagues), Poly1305 (Bernstein again) and ChaCha20 (by, you guessed it, Bernstein).

這些演算法或是定義,包括了 Curve25519、EdDSA、Poly1305、ChaCha20。而這篇文章試著說明造成這樣情況的背景以及原因,以及這樣會導致什麼問題。

當實際分析時會發現,檯面上沒幾個能用的演算法,而看起來能用的那幾個又有專利 (像是 OCB),不然就是看起來被 NSA 放了一些說明不了的參數 (像是 P-256 Curve)。

然後 djb 弄出來的演算法不只看起來乾淨許多,也直接用數學模型證明安全性。而且他的實作也很理論派,像是還蠻堅持要做到 constant time implementation 以避開各種 side channel attack。

就... 理論很強,又很實戰派的一個人啊,檯面上真的沒幾隻可以打的贏啊 XD

印度對軟體專利的限制

印度對軟體專利加以限制:「No patent if invention lies only in computer program, says Indian Patent Office」,新的規定規範了如果是程式內所跑出來的創新 (invention),那麼就不可以被專利化:

The new guideline says that if the contribution of the invention lies only in computer program, the examiner should deny the patent claim.

基於程式本身不可專利,那麼完全由程式所產生出來的創新也不應該有專利權:

"The computer program in itself is never patentable. If the contribution lies solely in the computer program, deny the claim. If the contribution lies in both the computer program as well as hardware, proceed to other steps of patentability," it added.

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