regreSSHion:OpenSSH RCE

人在機場準備要回台灣,在 Hacker News 上看到「RegreSSHion: RCE in OpenSSH's server, on glibc-based Linux systems (qualys.com)」這個整個被抽醒,Qualys 的 security advisory 在這:「regreSSHion: RCE in OpenSSH's server, on glibc-based Linux systems (CVE-2024-6387)」。

剛剛看 Ubuntu 套件已經更新了,請儘快更新...

OpenSSH 官方的「release-9.8」內有提到這是 race condition 造成的問題,在 32-bit 的 lab 環境上面大約六到八小時可以打進去,64-bit 環境理論上應該也是可行的,但時間還沒有被驗證:

Successful exploitation has been demonstrated on 32-bit Linux/glibc systems with ASLR. Under lab conditions, the attack requires on average 6-8 hours of continuous connections up to the maximum the server will accept. Exploitation on 64-bit systems is believed to be possible but has not been demonstrated at this time. It's likely that these attacks will be improved upon.

在 security advisory 裡面有提到更細節的部分,解釋了 race condition 的攻擊對象,以及為什麼 OpenBSD 沒中獎:

This vulnerability is exploitable remotely on glibc-based Linux systems, where syslog() itself calls async-signal-unsafe functions (for example, malloc() and free()): an unauthenticated remote code execution as root, because it affects sshd's privileged code, which is not sandboxed and runs with full privileges. We have not investigated any other libc or operating system; but OpenBSD is notably not vulnerable, because its SIGALRM handler calls syslog_r(), an async-signal-safer version of syslog() that was invented by OpenBSD in 2001.

這幾天應該會有更多測試出來,另外 Hacker News 上有人提到上個月 OpenSSH 打算內建阻擋系統的事情,有在猜測跟這個 security advisory 有關?(參考「OpenSSH 要內建阻擋系統了」)...

Anyway,後續可以再研究看看,但現在先趕緊把手上機器更新一輪比較要緊...

OpenSSH 要內建阻擋系統了

在「OpenSSH introduces options to penalize undesirable behavior」這邊看到 OpenSSH 要內建阻擋系統了,算是取代了 fail2ban 的一些功能?

還蠻... 特別的?不知道為什麼現在這個時間點會想要實作這個功能?

這個功能在 OpenBSD 7.6 上面預設會開啟,這點不確定其他 distribution 會怎麼安排:

So now we know: starting with OpenBSD 7.6, PerSourcePenalties will be enabled by default, and admins who do not themselves run PF or other network translation mechanisms will need to keep the consequences of inconsiderate NAT use in mind.

FreeBSD 14.0 釋出

FreeBSD 14.0-RELEASE 的公告也出來了:「FreeBSD 14.0-RELEASE Announcement」,比較完整的 release notes 在「FreeBSD 14.0-RELEASE Release Notes」。

先從官方列的 highlight 來看,首先比較重要的是 GENERIC kernel 支援 1024 cores:

FreeBSD supports up to 1024 cores on the amd64 and arm64 platforms.

看了一下 commit log 是從 256 變成 1024

先就 x86-64 這邊來看,目前「家用」最多的應該是 AMD7995WX (96 cores),舊版的 256 限制應該也還能撐住,但看 commit log 有提到,主要是預期這幾年應該會有更暴力的機器出現。

另外一塊是伺服器端,Intel 這邊有 8 sockets 的版本 (參考「Intel Xeon Sapphire Rapids to Scale to 4 and 8 Sockets」),如果都是接 8490H 的話就是 480 cores 了。

ARM 的話好像也可以堆,但不熟...

另外一個提到的重點是 TCP 預設的 congestion control 改成 CUBIC

The default congestion control mechanism for TCP is now CUBIC.

翻 commit log 可以看到是從 NewReno 換成 CUBIC 的,這樣就跟 Linux kernel 預設值一樣了。

再來比較重要的是在 release notes 裡面提到的,FreeBSD 15.0 將會拔光 32-bit 環境的支援,只留 armv7,這代表 Raspberry Pi 第一代的 armv6 也被淘汰掉了:

FreeBSD 15.0 is not expected to include support for 32-bit platforms other than armv7. The armv6, i386, and powerpc platforms are deprecated and will be removed. 64-bit systems will still be able to run older 32-bit binaries.

然後有些我自己翻覺得還蠻有趣的。

首先是看到 non-root 的 chroot

The chroot facility supports unprivileged operation, and the chroot(8) program has a -n option to enable its use. a40cf4175c90 (Sponsored by EPSRC)

然後把 OpenSSH 內對 FIDO/U2F 的支援開起來了:

The use of FIDO/U2F hardware authenticators has been enabled in ssh, using the new public key types ecdsa-sk and ed25519-sk, along with corresponding certificate types. FIDO/U2F support is described in https://www.openssh.com/txt/release-8.2. e9a994639b2a (Sponsored by The FreeBSD Foundation)

ASLR 預設開啟:

Address Space Layout Randomization (ASLR) is enabled for 64-bit executables by default. It can be disabled as needed if applications fail unexpectedly, for example with segmentation faults. To disable for a single invocation, use the proccontrol(1) command: proccontrol -m aslr -s disable command. To disable ASLR for all invocations of a binary, use the elfctl(1) command: elfctl -e +noaslr file. Problems should be reported via the problem reporting system, https://bugs.freebsd.org, or posting to the freebsd-stable@FreeBSD.org mailing list. b014e0f15bc7 (Sponsored by Stormshield)

然後先前被罵臭頭的 WireGuard 支援也放回來了:(「FreeBSD & pfSense 上的 WireGuard 問題」)

The kernel wg(4) WireGuard driver has been reintegrated; it provides Virtual Private Network (VPN) interfaces using the WireGuard protocol. 744bfb213144 (Sponsored by Rubicon Communications, LLC ("Netgate") and The FreeBSD Foundation)

然後看到 Netflix 贊助的 kTLS 支援 TLS 1.3:

KTLS (the kernel TLS implementation) has added receive offload support for TLS 1.3. Receive offload is now supported for TLS 1.1 through 1.3; send offload is supported for TLS 1.0 through 1.3. 05a1d0f5d7ac (Sponsored by Netflix)

然後 FreeBSD 長久以來 root 預設用的 /bin/csh 改成 /bin/sh 了:

The default shell for the root user is now sh(1), which has many new features for interactive use. d410b585b6f0

預設的 MTA 變成 dma (Dragonfly Mail Agent),看名字加上翻了一下 manpage,確認是從 Dragonfly BSD 移植過來的:

The default mail transport agent (MTA) is now the Dragonfly Mail Agent (dma(8)) rather than sendmail(8). Configuration of the MTA is done via mailer.conf(5). sendmail(8) and its configuration remain available. a67b925ff3e5

然後 portsnap 被拔掉了,現在就建議直接用 git 拉了,算是功成身退了:

The portsnap(8) utility has been removed. Users are encouraged to fetch the ports tree by using pkg install git and then git clone https://git.FreeBSD.org/ports.git /usr/ports. df53ae0fdd98

而 mergemaster 也被換成 etcupdate 了:

mergemaster(8) has been deprecated. Its replacement is etcupdate(8). 398b12691b4f (Sponsored by The FreeBSD Foundation)

然後支援 tarfs,而且可以用 zstd

The tarfs(5) file system has been added, which is backed by POSIX tar archives optionally compressed with zstd(1). 69d94f4c7608 (Sponsored by Juniper Networks, Inc.) (Sponsored by Klara, Inc.)

好久沒看 FreeBSD 的 release notes...

OpenSSH 加入了 noise (keystroke timing obfuscation) 功能

Hacker News 上看到在 OpenSSH 裡加入 keystroke timing obfuscation 的功能:「Keystroke timing obfuscation added to ssh(1) (undeadly.org)」。

如同 commit log 裡面提到的,這個功能會想要故意沒事就送一些沒用的資料 (增加一些噪音),降低從 side channel 被判讀的資訊量:

This attempts to hide inter-keystroke timings by sending interactive traffic at fixed intervals (default: every 20ms) when there is only a small amount of data being sent. It also sends fake "chaff" keystrokes for a random interval after the last real keystroke. These are controlled by a new ssh_config ObscureKeystrokeTiming keyword/

基於 OpenSSH 算是 SSH 這塊的 de-factor standard 了,接下來看其他家像是 Dropbear 會不會也實作?

OpenSSH 與 Dropbear 對 Ed25519 的支援

查了一下這兩個 server 端的軟體支援 Ed25519 的時間點。

OpenSSH 是在 2014/01/30 的 6.5 就支援了:

* ssh(1), sshd(8): Add support for Ed25519 as a public key type. Ed25519 is a elliptic curve signature scheme that offers better security than ECDSA and DSA and good performance. It may be used for both user and host keys.

算是相當久以前就支援了。對應到第一個支援的 Debian 版本是 Jessie 使用的 OpenSSH 6.7:「sshd(8) — openssh-server — Debian jessie — Debian Manpages」;第一個支援的 Ubuntu (LTS) 版本是 Trusty (14.04) 用的 OpenSSH 6.6:「openssh source package in Trusty」。

Dropbear 這邊就晚不少,在 2020/06/15 的 2020.79 版本才支援:

- Support ed25519 hostkeys and authorized_keys, many thanks to Vladislav Grishenko. This also replaces curve25519 with a TweetNaCl implementation that reduces code size.

所以對應到第一個支援的 Debian 版本是 Bullseye 的 2020.81:「Debian -- Details of package dropbear in bullseye」;第一個支援 Ubuntu (LTS) 的版本是 Jammy (22.04) 的 2020.81:「Ubuntu – Details of package dropbear in jammy」。

這樣看起來如果就是想要用 Ed25519 的話,變成 server 端的軟體得配合:預設裝的 sshd 應該都是 OpenSSH,如果想要換 Dropbear 的話要看 distribution 內給的版本夠不夠新,或是透過 PPA 之類的方法裝新版。

但大多數採用 BusyBox 的機器應該沒有採用新版 Dropbear (像是 AP 刷機),這邊還是得使用其他 key format,如果要避開 NIST 有介入的格式,就還是得用 ssh-rsa 了。

OpenSSH 9.0 的 scp 與 sntrup761x25519 (Streamlined NTRU Prime)

OpenSSH 9.0 發行了,從 release-9.0 這邊可以看到重點,首先是 scp 的底層換掉,改用 SFTP 了,這點在先前「OpenSSH 的 scp 改用 SFTP 協定」這邊也有提到過:

This release switches scp(1) from using the legacy scp/rcp protocol to using the SFTP protocol by default.

另外一個是將 OpenSSH 8.9 引入的 post-quantum cipher 放入 default:

ssh(1), sshd(8): use the hybrid Streamlined NTRU Prime + x25519 key exchange method by default ("sntrup761x25519-sha512@openssh.com"). The NTRU algorithm is believed to resist attacks enabled by future quantum computers and is paired with the X25519 ECDH key exchange (the previous default) as a backstop against any weaknesses in NTRU Prime that may be discovered in the future. The combination ensures that the hybrid exchange offers at least as good security as the status quo.

We are making this change now (i.e. ahead of cryptographically-relevant quantum computers) to prevent "capture now, decrypt later" attacks where an adversary who can record and store SSH session ciphertext would be able to decrypt it once a sufficiently advanced quantum computer is available.

查了一下 Streamlined NTRU Prime 發現有 djb 參與,而且發現頭銜上面有掛中研院:

Daniel J. Bernstein, University of Illinois at Chicago, USA, and Ruhr University Bochum, Germany, and Academia Sinica, Taiwan

清單裡面有不少中研院的人:

Ming-Shing Chen, Academia Sinica, Taiwan

Bo-Yuan Peng, National Taiwan University and Academia Sinica, Taiwan

裡面還看到魯教授

Bo-Yin Yang, Academia Sinica, Taiwan

後面也有看到計畫相關的資訊:

Taiwanese authors were supported by Taiwan Ministry of Science and Technology Grants 108-2221-E-001-008 and 109-2221-E-001-009-MY3, Sinica Investigator Award AS-IA-109-M01, Executive Yuan Data Safety and Talent Cultivation Project (AS-KPQ-109-DSTCP).

SSH 的 StrictHostKeyChecking=accept-new

OpenSSH 在連到新的 host 時會跳出 key fingerprint 的資訊讓使用者確認,有時候為了自動化會用 StrictHostKeyChecking=no 避開,在 Lobsters Daily 上則看到了新的選項可以用,StrictHostKeyChecking=accept-new

就如同選項的名字所描述的,查了一下 OpenSSH Release Notes 可以看到這是在 OpenSSH 7.5 導入的參數,是在 March 20, 2017 引入的:

* ssh(1): expand the StrictHostKeyChecking option with two new settings. The first "accept-new" will automatically accept hitherto-unseen keys but will refuse connections for changed or invalid hostkeys. This is a safer subset of the current behaviour of StrictHostKeyChecking=no. The second setting "off", is a synonym for the current behaviour of StrictHostKeyChecking=no: accept new host keys, and continue connection for hosts with incorrect hostkeys. A future release will change the meaning of StrictHostKeyChecking=no to the behaviour of "accept-new". bz#2400

對於一些自動化的流程應該夠用了,不需要到用 no 完全關掉。

翻了「Ubuntu – Package Search Results -- openssh-client」可以看到 18.04 之後都是 7.5 之後的版本了,支援度應該是沒什麼太大問題...

OpenSSH 的 scp 改用 SFTP 協定

在「By default, scp(1) now uses SFTP protocol」這邊看到的,OpenSSH 的 scp 改用 SFTP 協定了,原因也有附在文章裡:

SFTP offers more predictable filename handling and does not require expansion of glob(3) patterns via the shell on the remote side.

要注意這是 BC-break change,有些之前會動的 case 在改用 SFTP 後會爛掉,但這算是前進了一大步,scp 因為 spec 的關係很難維護安全性。

在「Deprecating scp」這邊也有提到相關的問題,另外也給出了一些範例。

SSH 對傳入參數的 quoting

昨天在 Hacker News 首頁上看到「SSH quoting」這個,看得出來作者被 OpenSSH 玩弄到不要不要的樣子...

先簡單的整理一下:

$ ssh example.com 'cd /tmp; pwd'
/tmp
$ ssh example.com 'bash -l -c "cd /tmp; pwd"'
/tmp
$ ssh example.com bash -l -c "cd /tmp; pwd"  
/home/gslin

第三個指令發生的「預期外的行為」,但寫習慣的人會把指令全部包成一個字串,就很自然的避開這個問題了。當然 OpenSSH 的設計 (讓你不用加 quote 也會動) 的確也是容易中獎的點啦...

GitHub 支援 SSH 使用 Security Key 了

GitHub 宣佈支援使用 security key 的 SSH key 操作了:「Security keys are now supported for SSH Git operations」。

也就是需要 SSH key + security key 才有辦法認證,只有拿到 SSH key 或是 security key 都是沒有辦法認證過。

目前官方支援 ecdsa-sked25519-sk

Now you can use two additional key types: ecdsa-sk and ed25519-sk, where the “sk” suffix is short for “security key.”

不過在 Ubuntu 20.04 下用預設的系統只能支援 ecdsa-sk,因為 ed25519-sk 會遇到類似「ed25519 problem with libressl」這邊的問題,就算你用的是 OpenSSL

然後生完 key 後在 ~/.ssh/config 裡面指定對 github.com 使用這把 key:

Host github.com
    IdentityFile ~/.ssh/id_ecdsa_sk

接下來操作的時候就會需要碰一下 security key 了。