Tag Archives: law

一堆軟體工程的定律...

看到「Famous Laws Of Software Development」這篇文章,2017 年的整理,裡面包括了很多軟體工程上的定律:

  • Murphy's Law
  • Brook's Law
  • Hofstadter's Law
  • Conway's Law
  • Postel's Law
  • Pareto Principle
  • The Peter Principle
  • Kerchkhoff's Principle
  • Linus's Law
  • Moore's Law
  • Wirth's law
  • Ninety-ninety rule
  • Knuth's optimization principle
  • Norvig's Law

開頭就放 Murphy's Law... XD

裡面的概念大多數都聽過了,有些知道名字,但有些只知道概念...

西班牙透過新法規限制 Uber 營業

包括 UberCabify 都受到新規範影響:「Ride-hailing companies suspend Barcelona services after new regulations」。

新規範限制乘客必須在上車前十五分鐘叫車:

The Catalan government ruled that ride-hailing services could only pick up passengers after a 15-minute delay from the time they were booked.

不是直接說你違法,而是用這個方式壓制隨叫隨到的服務... 這個方式應該會擴散到其他地區。

Facebook 花錢向使用者購買他們的行為記錄

這則從 Nuzzel 上看到的,國外討論得很凶:「Facebook pays teens to install VPN that spies on them」。

Facebook 付錢給使用者,要他們安裝 VPN (以及 Root CA,看起來是為了聽 HTTPS 內容),然後從上面蒐集資料,這本身就不是什麼好聽的行為了,但更嚴重的問題在於包括了未成年人:

Since 2016, Facebook has been paying users ages 13 to 35 up to $20 per month plus referral fees to sell their privacy by installing the iOS or Android “Facebook Research” app. Facebook even asked users to screenshot their Amazon order history page. The program is administered through beta testing services Applause, BetaBound and uTest to cloak Facebook’s involvement, and is referred to in some documentation as “Project Atlas” — a fitting name for Facebook’s effort to map new trends and rivals around the globe.

這個計畫在 iOS 平台下架了,但 Android 平台看起來還是會繼續:

[Update 11:20pm PT: Facebook now tells TechCrunch it will shut down the iOS version of its Research app in the wake of our report. The rest of this article has been updated to reflect this development.]

Facebook’s Research program will continue to run on Android. We’re still awaiting comment from Apple on whether Facebook officially violated its policy and if it asked Facebook to stop the program. As was the case with Facebook removing Onavo Protect from the App Store last year, Facebook may have been privately told by Apple to voluntarily remove it.

未成年人部份應該會是重點,拉板凳出來看...

加拿大禁止透過 ISP 發送版權侵害通知

因為被濫用的關係,加拿大決定禁止版權擁有人透過 ISP 發送版權侵害通知:「Canada Prohibits Piracy Settlement Demands in ISP Copyright Notices」。

不過這個限制是有條件的,只有當通知裡面有包括任何形式的協議時才會被禁止:

Moving forward, rightsholders will not be allowed to send copyright infringement notices for ISPs to pass onto their customers, if they contain a direct or indirect offer to settle.

TorrentFreak 的文章裡也提到了,就是要阻止這樣的行為變成「產業」:

The development effectively ends Rightscorp-style business models in Canada.

這是條文:

Bill C-86, the Budget Implementation Act, has now received royal assent, so there will be some big changes in the Great White North. Section 41.‍25 of the Copyright Act is now amended with the addition of the following;

(3) A notice of claimed infringement shall not contain:

(a) an offer to settle the claimed infringement;
(b) a request or demand, made in relation to the claimed infringement, for payment or for personal information;
(c) a reference, including by way of hyperlink, to such an offer, request or demand; and
(d) any other information that may be prescribed by regulation.

加州打算強制規定新房子都要有太陽能...

加州打算直接從法律上規定從 2020 年開始的新房子都要有太陽能:「California set to become first US state requiring solar panels on new homes」。

The state’s Energy Commission is due to vote next week on new energy standards that would require virtually all new homes to be constructed with solar panels from 2020.

如果通過的話,從 20% 直接變成強制性的 100%:

Currently around 20 per cent of single-family homes are constructed with solar capacity built in, but if the new standards are approved as expected this proportion will rise sharply.

下個禮拜回來看看消息好了,這應該是蠻指標性的事情... 無論是在經濟上還是在環保題材上。

FTC 警告 Nintendo 與 Sony「拆封喪失保固」違反聯邦法

在「FTC Warns Companies ‘Warranty Void if Removed’ Stickers Are Flatly Illegal」這邊看到的新聞。FTC 的新聞稿則可以在「FTC Staff Warns Companies that It Is Illegal to Condition Warranty Coverage on the Use of Specified Parts or Services」這邊看到。

主要是因為美國的聯邦法 Magnuson–Moss Warranty Act (在 STATUTE-88-Pg2183.pdf 這邊可以看到條文 PDF,雖然看起來是掃描的圖檔,但有透過 OCR 處理讓大多數的文字都可以搜尋)。

這套聯邦法保護消費者在接受保固時不受嚴苛的限制。法條裡面並沒有強制規定一定要有保固,但規定了如果有保固時,有哪些行為是受到規範的,以避免消費者受到不平等的對待:

The law does not require any product to have a warranty (it may be sold "as is"), but if it does have a warranty, the warranty must comply with this law. The law was created to fix problems as a result of manufacturers using disclaimers on warranties in an unfair or misleading manner.

其中這段條文讓 FTC 認為「拆封喪失保固」違法:

(c) No Warrantor of a consumer product may condition his written or implied warranty of such product on the consumer's using, in connection with such product, any article or service (other than article or service provided without charge under the terms of the warranty) which is identified by brand, trade, or corporate name; except that the prohibition of this subsection may be waived by the Commission if—
(1) the warrantor satisfies the Commission that the warranted product will function properly only if the article or service so identified is used in connection with the warranted product, and
(2) the Commission finds that such a waiver is in the public interest.

在 FTC 的新聞稿中提到他們發給六家警告,列出了其中三家的文字,在媒體的報導裡面也都找出來這些文字分別是從哪些公司出來的,包括了 Hyundai (現代)、Nintendo (任天堂) 以及 Sony (索尼):

“The use of [company name] parts is required to keep your… manufacturer’s warranties and any extended warranties intact.” = Hyundai.

“This warranty shall not apply if this product… is used with products not sold or licensed by” = Nintendo.

“This warranty does not apply if this product… has had the warranty seal on the [product] altered, defaced, or removed” = Sony.

不過在另外一邊,Reddit 上 Nintendo 區的討論也蠻有趣的:「FTC Staff Warns Companies that it is Illegal to Condition Warranty Coverage on the Use of Specified Parts or Services : nintendo」,裡面就稍微扯遠了一些,提到了改機之類的保固問題...

另外值得一提的是,同一家媒體在 2016 年的時候就有報導類似的事情了,不過看起來當時沒什麼改善:「Microsoft, Sony, and other companies still use illegal warranty-void-if-removed stickers」,這次由 FTC 出手應該會再更有力道一些。

Facebook 在南韓因為太慢被罰錢???

看到「South Korea fines Facebook $369K for slowing user internet connections」這則新聞,裡面提到 Facebook 的 reroute 行為:

The Korea Communications Commission (KCC) began investigating Facebook last May and found that the company had illegally limited user access, as reported by ABC News. Local South Korean laws prohibit internet services from rerouting users’ connections to networks in Hong Kong and US instead of local ISPs without notifying those users. In a few cases, such rerouting slowed down users’ connections by as much as 4.5 times.

沒有告知使用者就導去香港或是美國的伺服器,聽起來像是 GeoDNS 的架構,以及 Facebook 的 CDN 架構幹的事情?不過在原報導裡面,另外一個指控是:

The KCC probed claims that Facebook intentionally slowed access while it negotiated network usage fees with internet service providers.

另外南韓官方也不承認使用者條款內的告知有效的:

Facebook said it did not violate the law in part because its terms of use say it cannot guarantee its services will operate without delays or interference. KCC officials rejected that argument, saying the terms were unfair. It recommended the company amend its terms of use.

現在看起來應該是要打官司?

加州也禁止詢問之前的薪資了

在「California bosses can no longer ask you about your previous salary」這邊看到的消息。繼「麻州立法禁止詢問前一份工作的薪資」與「紐約市也將禁止雇主詢問薪資」後,加州也加入了這個行列。

The salary privacy bill, was enacted by Gov. Jerry Brown on Thursday, Oct. 12, at a celebratory signing ceremony at Women’s Empowerment, a Sacramento nonprofit for homeless women. He was surrounded by members of the California Legislative Women’s Caucus.

法案將於 2018 年生效:

The salary privacy bill takes effect on January 1, 2018.

加州的手機防竊提案讓失竊率下降不少...

2013 的時候提過「加州的手機防竊提案...」,後來在 2015 年生效:

In a press release sent to reporters on Thursday, George Gascón said that since the law went into effect on July 1, 2015[,]

在兩大陣營都有類似的功能:

Such a kill switch has become standard in all iPhones ("Activation Lock") and Android phones ("Device Protection") since 2015.

而執行到現在已經兩年了,手機的失竊率下降不少:「San Francisco DA: Anti-theft law results in huge drop in stolen phones」。

[S]martphone-related robberies have fallen 22 percent from 2015 to 2016. When measured from the peak in 2013, "overall robberies involving smartphones have declined an astonishing 50 percent."

變成要找人殺肉才能處理,增加被竊後的處理難度與成本...

Bose 販賣用戶隱私被告

Unroll 在旁邊燒的時候 (參考 Uber 戰火蔓延到 Unroll),Bose 也不甘寂寞決定跟上科技業的潮流:「Bose headphones spy on listeners: lawsuit」。

Bose 直接將他們 app 收集到的資訊拿出來賣:

Bose Corp spies on its wireless headphone customers by using an app that tracks the music, podcasts and other audio they listen to, and violates their privacy rights by selling the information without permission, a lawsuit charged.

這次打算控告的產品包括這些 (這邊提到的 Zak 是原告):

Zak is seeking millions of dollars of damages for buyers of headphones and speakers, including QuietComfort 35, QuietControl 30, SoundLink Around-Ear Wireless Headphones II, SoundLink Color II, SoundSport Wireless and SoundSport Pulse Wireless.

編號可以記一下,之後可以拿來追蹤:

The case is Zak v Bose Corp, U.S. District Court, Northern District of Illinois, No. 17-02928.