Tag Archives: intermediate

Let's Encrypt 從七月開始將會改用自己的 Root 簽發憑證

Let's Encrypt 宣佈了以後的憑證的簽發計畫:「Transitioning to ISRG's Root」。

主要的改變是 2019/07/08 之後提供的 intermediate CA 會改變,從現在的 cross-sign 變成只有自己的 Root CA:

On July 8, 2019, we will change the default intermediate certificate we provide via ACME. Most subscribers don’t need to do anything. Subscribers who support very old TLS/SSL clients may want to manually configure the older intermediate to increase backwards compatibility.

目前的簽發用的兩個中介憑證 (Let's Encrypt Authority X3Let's Encrypt Authority X4) 是由 Let's Encrypt 自己的 ISRG Root X1IdenTrustDST Root CA X3 所 共同簽署的:

這是因為 IdenTrust 的 DST Root CA X3 憑證很久前就被各家瀏覽器信任 (像是 Mozilla 的「Request to add two additional IdenTrust root CA certificates」這篇,可以看到 2007 年就被放進去了),而 Let's Encrypt 當時為了更快把可用的產品推出,所以跟 IdenTrust 合作,採用 cross sign 的方式讓 Let's Encrypt 簽出來的憑證被一般瀏覽器與函式庫所信任。

現在差不多過了三年半,Let's Encrypt 成為目前世界上最大的 SSL Certificate 發放單位,加上自己的 Root CA (ISRG Root X1) 也都差不多被整合進各家系統內了,所以打算要獨立自己簽了。

不過系統上可以設定,使用者如果有遇到相容性問題 (太舊的系統可能還是不包含 Let's Encrypt 自家的 ISRG Root X1),還是可以設定使用有 cross-sign 的版本 (維持現狀)。與 IdenTrust 的 cross-sign 會維持到 2021 年九月,大約再兩年多一些:

Our current cross-signature from IdenTrust expires on March 17, 2021. The IdenTrust root that we are cross-signed from expires on September 30, 2021. Within the next year we will obtain a new cross-signature that is valid until September 29, 2021. This means that our subscribers will have the option to manually configure a certificate chain that uses IdenTrust until September 29, 2021.


CloudFlare 的 Origin CA:保護 CloudFlare 到 Origin 這段的傳輸過程

CloudFlare 推出的 Origin CA 用來保護從 CloudFlare 到 Origin Server 這段的過程:「Introducing CloudFlare Origin CA」,也就是右半部這段:

CloudFlare 把這個新功能包裝得很神,但實際上只是弄個 CA 出來跑而已,僅此而已。

當然,由於他不需要處理 Public CA 的問題,所以有很多在一般 TLS 連線需要做的檢查步驟可以被簡化,藉此達到效能改善,包括了省掉 intermediate certificates、OCSP 以及 SCTs:

With Origin CA certificates, we’ve stripped everything that’s extraneous to communication between our servers and yours to produce the smallest possible certificate and handshake. For example, we have no need to bundle intermediate certificates to assist browsers in building paths to trusted roots; no need to include signed certificate timestamps (SCTs) for purposes of certificate transparency and EV treatment; no need to include links to Certification Practice Statements or other URLs; and no need to listen to Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) responses from third-parties.


Eliminating these unnecessary components typically found in certificates from public CAs has allowed us to reduce the size of the handshake by up to 70%, from over 4500 bytes in some cases to under 1300.

Let's Encrypt 建立 Root Certificate 與 Intermediate Certificate

Let's Encrypt 的 Root Certificate 與 Intermediate Certificate 建出來了:「Let's Encrypt Root and Intermediate Certificates」。

Intermediate Certificate 除了會讓自己的 Root Certificate 簽名外,也會讓 IdenTrust 的 DST Root CA X3 簽 (目前各大瀏覽器與 SSL library 都有支援)。

目前是 RSA key,之後會生出 ECDSA key:

All ISRG keys are currently RSA keys. We are planning to generate ECDSA keys later this year.