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AWS 讓你可以禁止 RI 跨帳號計算了...

現在 AWS 讓你可以設定,是否允許 Reserved Instance (RI) 跨帳號使用:「Customize your organization’s AWS credit and Reserved Instance (RI) discount sharing using new billing preferences」。


Historically, AWS has maximized customer savings by applying credits and RI discounts first to the account that owned the credit or RI lease and then distributing the remainder, if any, to qualifying usage incurred by accounts in the same organization. While this approach had the potential of lowering the overall bill, customers were unable to control if, and how, discounts were applied across organizational lines.


To provide greater flexibility, customers can now disable AWS credit sharing across all accounts in their organization. This ensures that only the account that owns a credit, or has previously redeemed a credit, receives the associated benefit.


You can also designate a set of accounts for which RI discount sharing is disabled, while continuing to share RI discounts among the rest of the accounts in your organization.


在 CLI 下開關以及查詢 EC2 的狀態...

有時候需要開 Ubuntu 測試東西,會在 AWS 上開 EC2 起來測試,但開 console 太麻煩了,寫幾個 function 丟進 shell script 裡面比較乾脆。其中查詢 Ubuntu AMI 的程式出自「How do I know what Ubuntu AMI to launch on EC2?」這邊。

ec2.ls() 裡,我的 jq 版本比較舊,不過不影響我的 copy & paste,所以就沒有 hack 他了。新版的應該可以多加上 | @tsv 變成 tab 隔開 (沒測過,查資料時查到而已)。

ec2.run() 裡,我這邊是先到 console 上查出 security group 與 subnet 的 id,然後這邊 hard code 進去。我的預設是開 t2.medium,臨時要指定的話就 ec2.run t2.nano 就可以改開 t2.nano 了,不過要注意的是,這邊程式在查詢時的條件是 hvm:ebs,換的時候要注意 image 相容性...

# AWS-related
function ec2.ls() {
    aws ec2 describe-instances | \
        jq -c -M '.Reservations[] | .Instances[] | [.InstanceId, .InstanceType, .PublicIpAddress]'

function ec2.rm() {
    local INSTANCE_ID=${1:i-xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx}
    aws ec2 terminate-instances --instance-id ${INSTANCE_ID}

function ec2.run() {
    local INSTANCE_TYPE=${1:-t2.medium}
    aws ec2 run-instances --image-id $(ec2.ubuntu_ami()) --key-name gslin --security-group-ids sg-xxxxxxxx --instance-type ${INSTANCE_TYPE} --subnet-id subnet-xxxxxxxx

function ec2.ubuntu_ami() {
    curl -s "https://cloud-images.ubuntu.com/locator/ec2/releasesTable" | \
    sed '$x;$G;/\(.*\),/!H;//!{$!d};$!x;$s//\1/;s/^\n//' | \
    jq -c '.aaData[] | select(contains(["16.04", "us-east-1", "hvm:ebs"]))' | \
    grep -o 'ami-[a-z0-9]\+' | \
    head -1


話說 Ubuntu 網站上的 JSON 居然吐出 malformed data (trailing comma),這是自己 printf() 之類硬幹出來的嗎... XD

Amazon EC2 的 CRI 支援一年版本了...

Amazon EC2 的 CRI (Convertible Reserved Instance) 支援一年的合約了:「EC2 Convertible Reserved Instance Update – New 1-Year CRI, Merges & Splits」,這樣彈性再多了一些:

Today we are introducing Convertible RIs with a 1-year term, complementing the existing 3-year term.

不過 CRI 主要是用在需要換 family type 的情境下,如果是已知 family type (像是一般性的 worker 會選 C4 或是剛推出的 C5) 那麼就直接選擇 Regional RI 就好...

基本上就是讓財務操作上多個選擇 :o

Amazon EC2 的 C5 家族...

Amazon EC2 推出新的 instance:「Now Available – Compute-Intensive C5 Instances for Amazon EC2」,官方宣稱這次單位價錢的效能與 C4 相比大約提升了 25%,而極端的情況可以到 50%:

The new instances offer a 25% price/performance improvement over the C4 instances, with over 50% for some workloads.

這次比較特別的是切分方式,是 large、xlarge、2xlarge、4xlarge、9xlarge (咦?) 以及 18xlarge (...)。

然後亞洲區都還沒上 XD

You can launch C5 instances today in the US East (Northern Virginia), US West (Oregon), and EU (Ireland) Regions in On-Demand and Spot form (Reserved Instances are also available), with additional Regions in the works.

AWS 推出 NVIDIA Tesla V100 的 GPU 機種 (P3)

這次從 NVIDIA 推出到 AWS 採用比以前快好多,依照維基百科上查到的資料,Tesla V1000 是六月 21 日推出的,這樣算起來四個月後就上線了:「New – Amazon EC2 Instances with Up to 8 NVIDIA Tesla V100 GPUs (P3)」。

Today we are making the next generation of GPU-powered EC2 instances available in four AWS regions. Powered by up to eight NVIDIA Tesla V100 GPUs, the P3 instances are designed to handle compute-intensive machine learning, deep learning, computational fluid dynamics, computational finance, seismic analysis, molecular modeling, and genomics workloads.

P2 是 K80,NVIDIA 推出的時間是 2014 年的十一月了... 這時候拿出新的貨色出來算合理 XD

然後是這幾區有提供 P3:

P3 instances are available in the US East (Northern Virginia), US West (Oregon), EU (Ireland), and Asia Pacific (Tokyo) Regions in On-Demand, Spot, Reserved Instance, and Dedicated Host form.

Amazon RDS 的 RI 也支援彈性計價了

AWS 宣佈 RDS 的 RI 也支援彈性計價了:「Amazon RDS Reserved Instances Offer Instance Size Flexibility」。

也就是說跟 EC2 的 RI 方式切齊,買 db.m4.2xlarge 的 RI 後,可以用在兩台 db.m4.xlarge 上:

For example, let’s say you purchased a db.m4.2xlarge MySQL RI in US East (N. Virginia). The discounted rate of this RI can automatically apply to 2 db.m4.xlarge MySQL instances without you needing to do anything.

包括了相當多種類的 RDS,主要是沒有 license fee 的類型都包括在內了:

Amazon RDS Reserved Instance size flexibility is offered in all regions for the MySQL, MariaDB, PostgreSQL, and Amazon Aurora database engines, as well as the “bring your own license” (BYOL) edition of the Oracle database engine. To learn more about flexible RIs, please visit the Amazon RDS Reserved Instances Page.

但不包括要另外收 license fee 的 SQL Server 與 Oracle LI edition:

Size flexibility does not apply to Microsoft SQL Server and the License Included (LI) edition of Oracle.

Amazon EC2 推出 4TB 的機器

之前 Amazon EC2 記憶體最大的機器是 x1.32xlarge 的 2TB RAM (更精確是 1952GB),現在推出了 4TB RAM 的 x1e.32xlarge (3904GB):「Now Available – EC2 Instances with 4 TB of Memory」。

現在這個時間點在 us-east-1 的價錢是 USD$26.688/hour (一個月 USD$19215.36),用的到的人應該付得起?

另外值得注意的是,x1e.32xlarge 雖然比 x1.32xlarge 多了一倍的記憶體,但 vCPU 不變 (都是 128),而且 ECU 下降了 (從 349 降到 340)。

這個機器目前在 us-east-1us-west-2eu-west-1ap-northeast-1 四區提供服務:

The x1e.32xlarge instances can be launched in On-Demand and Reserved Instance form via the AWS Management Console, AWS Command Line Interface (CLI), AWS SDKs, and AWS Marketplace in the US East (Northern Virginia), US West (Oregon), EU (Ireland), and Asia Pacific (Tokyo) Regions.

EC2 的 Spot Instance 可以「接關」

Amazon EC2Spot Instance 可以「接關」了:「New – Stop & Resume Workloads on EC2 Spot Instances」。

當 Spot Instance 的競價不足以標到機器時,他會先關起來 (Stop),等到價錢低於競價後就會再打開機器,這時候的狀態就會恢復。另外也提到了必須是使用 EBS 的機器才支援:

Amazon EC2 Spot now allows Amazon EBS-backed instances to be stopped in the event of interruption, instead of being terminated when capacity is no longer available at your preferred price. Spot can then fulfill your request by restarting instances from a stopped state when capacity is available within your price and time requirements.

用法是把 Spot Instance 的關機設定設為 Stop:

To use this new feature, choose “stop” instead of “terminate” as the interruption behavior when submitting a persistent Spot request. When you choose “stop”, Spot will shut down your instance upon interruption.

恢復的時候就會儘量保持一樣地開回來 (連 instance id 都相同):

When capacity is available again within your price and time requirements, Spot will restart your instance. Upon restart, the EBS root device is restored from its prior state, previously attached data volumes are reattached, and the instance retains its instance ID.

是個接關的感覺 XD

在 EC2 上使用 25Gbps 的網路

Amazon EC2 上許多系列最大台的機器現在都可以透過特殊界面跑到 25Gbps 了:「Announcing improved networking performance for Amazon EC2 instances」。

Amazon EC2 instances now provide a maximum bandwidth of 25 Gbps. This feature is available on the largest instance sizes of the M4, X1, P2, R4, I3, F1, and G3 instance types. Using Elastic Network Adapter (ENA) based Enhanced Networking, customers can utilize up to 25 Gbps of bandwidth.

除了 AWS 提供的的 AMI 外,另外在一些官方作業系統也都有支援:

ENA driver is installed in the latest Amazon Machine Images (AMIs) for the following operating systems: Amazon Linux, Ubuntu 14.04 and 16.04, RHEL 7.4, SLES 12, Windows Server 2008R2, 2012, 2012R2 and 2016. ENA Linux driver source code is also available on Github.com for developers to integrate in their AMIs.

如果不在上面的,也可以透過 GitHub 上的 amzn/amzn-drivers (Official repository of the Elastic Network Adapter (ENA) network adapter for Linux and FreeBSD operating systems) 自己 porting... (如果你一定要想辦法用的話)

透過 AWS Budgets 管控 Reserved Instance 的使用率

現在可以透過 AWS Budgets 來看到 Reserved Instance 的使用率了:「Monitor your Reserved Instance utilization by receiving alerts via AWS Budgets」。

Starting today, customers can now monitor and receive alerts when their Reserved Instance (“RI”) utilization falls below the threshold they define.

算是個開頭,不過我更想請 AWS 分析有哪些機器是長年開著沒有 discount 的... 或者像是 GCP 那樣自動算 :o