加州法院認為 Uber 與 Lyft 的司機是員工

先前在其他地區已經有很多判例了,這次會特別記錄下來是因為加州是 UberLyft 的總部:「Uber and Lyft ordered by California judge to classify drivers as employees」。

裡面有提到了去年九月加州政府通過了法案 (California Assembly Bill 5,簡稱 AB 5),把 ABC Test 放進法律,取代了之前的 Borello test,用來判斷聘顧關係 (是否為員工,或是獨立的合約關係):

Under the ABC test, a worker is considered an employee and not an independent contractor, unless the hiring entity satisfies all three of the following conditions:

  • The worker is free from the control and direction of the hiring entity in connection with the performance of the work, both under the contract for the performance of the work and in fact;
  • The worker performs work that is outside the usual course of the hiring entity’s business; and
  • The worker is customarily engaged in an independently established trade, occupation, or business of the same nature as that involved in the work performed.

現在需要這三點都成立才會認定為獨立的合約聘顧關係,雖然還有上訴的機會,但翻盤的機率應該不高,記得這個法案當初就是針對 Uber 跟 Lyft...

電子書在美國的販售管道與作者的獲利

在美國,五大出版商在電子書拆分上對作者佔的比例不斷的下滑,這也代表話語權不斷的下降,而且愈來愈不需要這些「大」出版商了:「Independent authors are starting to outsell the Big Five」。

這邊所提到的 Big Five 可以在「The Big Five Trade Book Publishers」這邊查到,分別是:

  • Hachette Book Group
  • HarperCollins
  • Macmillan Publishers
  • Penguin Random House
  • Simon and Schuster

另外也可以把 Amazon 當作是電子書產業的大公司。可以看到獨立發行的比率愈來愈高:

AuthorEarnings.com has published a report on this very subject, so I jumped into the data. Their May 2016 report reports 1340 authors earn over $100,000 per year on Amazon.com. The striking fact here: “Half of them are indies and Amazon-imprint authors.”

「出版社」的架構受到的挑戰愈來愈多了。