AlphaGo 的開局庫分析

Facebook 上看到 Aja Huang 的訊息,介紹了 DeepMind 放出的新資料,由 AlphaGo 分析人類開局的各種勝率 (不是先前發表出來更凶的 AlphaZero,但不曉得是 AlphaGo Zero 還是 AlphaGo Master...)。

網站在 AlphaGo Teach: Discover new and creative ways of playing Go,盤面上的數字都是指黑棋勝率。

This tool provides analysis of 6,000 of the most popular opening sequences from the recent history of Go, using data from 231,000 human games and 75 games AlphaGo played against human players.

Explore the board and learn how AlphaGo's moves compare to those of professional and amateur players.

由於這是暴力法算出超大量的開局資料,而且是完整公佈在網路上,可以預料接下來的職業比賽,開局應該會參考這邊的資料進行修正...

Walmart 在賣場要導入機器人取代人類的工作了...

在「Walmart will soon have robots roaming the aisles in 50 stores」這邊看到 Walmart 要導入機器人取代人類的工作了,像是架上沒貨或是標籤錯誤或沒標的:

The robots go up and down the aisles, scanning for out-of-stock items, incorrect prices, and wrong or missing labels.

像是這樣的機器:

或是在掃描時更明顯的照片:

如果一直讓機器來換掉人類能做的事情,是不是有機會到後來就沒有工作需要做?如果當全世界都實行「無條件基本收入 (Unconditional Basic Income)」時,會不會愈來愈接近 Star Trek 裡面講到未來的經濟體系,沒有貨幣時情況?不曉得兩百年後會是什麼樣子...

用人力就可以達到離心機的效果...

看到「This Human-Powered Paper Centrifuge Is Pure Genius」這個設計真的很巧妙... 全文刊登在 nature biomedical engineering 上:「Hand-powered ultralow-cost paper centrifuge」。

起源來自於小時候的玩具 (我也有印象,但忘記中文叫什麼了...):

Here, we report an ultralow-cost (20 cents), lightweight (2 g), human-powered paper centrifuge (which we name ‘paperfuge’) designed on the basis of a theoretical model inspired by the fundamental mechanics of an ancient whirligig (or buzzer toy; 3,300 BC).

研究後發現離心速度可以到 125000rpm:

The paperfuge achieves speeds of 125,000 r.p.m. (and equivalent centrifugal forces of 30,000 g), with theoretical limits predicting 1,000,000 r.p.m.

對於無法買昂貴醫療器材的地區,這樣就有簡單但又頗有效的離心機做檢驗...

Amazon Polly 與 Amazon Lex:人機介面中的語音處理

AWS 這次推出的這兩個服務剛好成對:「Amazon Polly – Text to Speech in 47 Voices and 24 Languages」、「Amazon Lex – Build Conversational Voice & Text Interfaces」。

Amazon Polly 負責把文字唸出來變成語音,而 Amazon Lex 則是將語音辨識回文字,不過目前都還不支援中文... 但畢竟讓 user interface 這塊變得更親民了,算是基礎建設中服務,讓 startup 專心在產品本身上。

華盛頓郵報的歷史創舉:呼籲對告密者的求刑

英國衛報華盛頓郵報因報導 Snowden 事件而拿到 2014 年的普立茲獎後,華盛頓郵報正式公開立場,表達應該將 Snowden 弄回美國受審,而非現在大家在呼籲的特赦:「WashPost Makes History: First Paper to Call for Prosecution of Its Own Source (After Accepting Pulitzer)」。

In doing so, the Washington Post has achieved an ignominious feat in U.S. media history: the first-ever paper to explicitly editorialize for the criminal prosecution of its own source — one on whose back the paper won and eagerly accepted a Pulitzer Prize for Public Service. But even more staggering than this act of journalistic treachery against the paper’s own source are the claims made to justify it.

華盛頓郵報的說法更是無恥:

The complication is that Mr. Snowden did more than that. He also pilfered, and leaked, information about a separate overseas NSA Internet-monitoring program, PRISM, that was both clearly legal and not clearly threatening to privacy. (It was also not permanent; the law authorizing it expires next year.)

這從來就不是合法的問題,而是侵犯人權的問題,合法的事情在事後甚至被制定憲法修正案而推翻的事情多的是。美國的女性在 1920 年才擁有投票權 (透過「美國憲法第十九修正案」)。

第四權必須發揮應有的能力去推動政府往正確的方向前進。在拿到普立茲獎後以「合法」的角度來論述淪落為政府打手,墮落至此...

歐盟法院認為公開無線網路的營運者不需要對使用者的侵權行為負責

歐盟法院 (The Court of Justice of the European Union) 認為公開無線網路的營運者不需要對使用者的侵權行為負責:「EU Court: Open WiFi Operator Not Liable For Pirate Users」。

不過這是有一些前提的,法院認為應該要符合這幾個要件,營運方才不要負責。基本上完全沒有 filter 限制的無線網路會符合這些條件:

The Court further notes that in order for such ‘mere conduit’ services to be exempt from third party liability, three cumulative conditions must be met:

– The provider must not have initiated the transmission
– It must not have selected the recipient of the transmission
– It must neither have selected nor modified the information contained in the transmission.

帶這並不代表丟著不管,而是在發生後要求改善:

In an effort to strike a balance between protecting a service provider from third party liability and the rights of IP owners, the Court ruled that providers can be required to end infringement.

“[T]he directive does not preclude the copyright holder from seeking before a national authority or court to have such a service provider ordered to end, or prevent, any infringement of copyright committed by its customers,” the Court found.

One such measure could include the obtaining of an injunction which would force an operator to password-protect his open WiFi network in order to deter infringement.

但法院並不同意直接監控:

On a more positive note, the Court rejected the notion of monitoring networks for infringement or taking more aggressive actions where unnecessary.

“[T]he directive expressly rules out the adoption of a measure to monitor information transmitted via a given network. Similarly, a measure consisting in terminating the internet connection completely without considering the adoption of measures less restrictive of the connection provider’s freedom to conduct a business would not be capable of reconciling the abovementioned conflicting rights,” the Court concludes.

網路對現在的言論自由非常重要,所以只有在確認侵犯他人權益的情況下才採取必要措施,歐盟法院這樣判大概是覺得這樣吧...

Lyft 與通用汽車合作,將在今年推出無人駕駛計程車

在「GM, Lyft to Test Self-Driving Electric Taxis」這邊看到突破性的服務,Lyft通用汽車 (GM) 合作,將在今年推出無人駕駛計程車。

通用汽車的新聞稿在這:「GM and Lyft to Shape the Future of Mobility」。

這直接再度衝擊了整個行業... 這次行業裡面的「人」消失了。

Hjson:the Human JSON

前幾天看到「Hjson, the Human JSON」這東西,想要在 JSON 上面提出拓展,讓人更好維護。

有幾個設計是大家已經想很久了。

首先是允許註解:

{
  # specify rate in requests/second
  "rate": 1000
}

再來是允許 ending trailing comma,這點在新的 JavaScript Engine 裡面是允許的,但在 JSON 規格裡是不允許的,對於 copy-paste 時就得很小心有沒有中獎:

{
  one: 1,
  two: 2,
}

另外幾個特點就還好。

object 的 key 沒有特殊情況時可以省略 double quote:

{
  key: "value"
}

甚至 value 是 single line 時也可以省略:

{
  text: look ma, no quotes!
}

而且當沒有 double quote 時不需要處理 escape 問題:

{
  path: c:\windows
  inject: <div class="important"></div>

  # escapes work inside quotes
  escape: "c:\\windows"
}

然後逗點可以省略,給的範例也突顯出對腦袋不直覺的問題 (ambiguous),這邊的 1 是 integer 還是 string?

{
  one: 1
  two: 2
}

多行,用 ''' 應該是借用了 Python 的想法?

{
  haiku:
    '''
    JSON I love you.
    But strangled is my data.
    This, so much better.
    '''
}

規格後面有提到 syntax,可以看到定義。

Hjson 算是一個開始吧,YAML 的設計需要極長的 training 時間才能正確使用,不知道 SaltStack 會不會有人馬上寫 adapter 出來接?(因為 SaltStack 已經可以接 JSON 與 YAML,只要有人把該接的接上去就可以了)

隨機產生「臉」的 pareidoloop

Hacker News 上看到的玩具:

  • 先隨機產生多邊形圖形。
  • 丟到 Face detection library 偵測是否有臉,沒有找到的話就回到第一步,如果有的話就會有個匹配值 (fitness)。
  • 如果有找到臉,就試著修改圖形 (進化) 找到更高的匹配值...

JavaScript 寫的,可以在 browser 上直接跑。原始程式碼在「https://github.com/phl/pareidoloop」,可以用瀏覽器玩的網站在「pareidoloop」。

用基因演算符合 Face detection library 偵測的特徵,還蠻有趣的玩具... 這是跑了大約半個小時跑出來的臉 (還蠻小張的):

有些臉的感覺,不過因為只有黑白圖片,而且又小小張的,感覺有點像是靈異照片 XDDD 像是「八大真實靈異照片!」這邊的例子...