Firefox 試著透過預載 Intermediate CA 降低連線錯誤發生的機率?

在「Preloading Intermediate CA Certificates into Firefox」這邊看到 Mozilla 的人打算在 Firefox 上預載所有的 Intermediate CA,以降低 HTTPS 連線發生錯誤的作法。這點在 Mozilla 的 Wiki 上也有記錄:「Security/CryptoEngineering/Intermediate Preloading」。

的確如文章裡說的,沒有正確放入 Intermediate CA 是個 server 設定上很常見的錯誤。像是前幾天看到「【茶包射手日記】網站憑證無效案例分析」這篇講的摩斯 其實就是這個案例,用 SSL Labs 的工具就可以掃出來問題:「SSL Report: (」。

問題出在於沒有送出正確的 Intermediate CA(s),所以在 Android 上找不到一條完整的 trust chain:

不過在 Windows 系統內的 CA store 是可以建立出一條完整的 trust chain,所以 Windows 上的 Microsoft EdgeGoogle Chrome 是不會有問題的 (這兩個都吃系統的 CA store):

Linux 上的 Google Chrome 就會出問題 (這邊會吃 Google 自家的 CA store 資料,就是 Android 那包)。

交叉比對中華電信自家的網站,像是「SSL Report: (2001:b000:1a4:d000:203:75:129:111)」這組,可以看到同樣都叫做「Chunghwa Telecom Co., Ltd. / Public Certification Authority - G2」的 Intermediate CA,但有兩種不同的 SHA256,可以翻到是:「609930eb807ad420afda2a8aa61b67483039168cd766e09942a48bfe7f3bdc10」與「f5fb67c8453eda34dbec8a766574f07a03548c084af2f5e6455ea769608d9ad5」,點入裡面的「Trust」tab 中可以看到中華自己的 CA 與 ePKI 的 CA 都有交叉簽,但卻不是每一個 CA 都有被所有瀏覽器認可,所以在設定的時候就得注意...

話說回來,現在因為 CA/B Forum 的標準有強制要送 CT (Certificate Transparency),的確是有辦法抓出所有的 Intermediate CA 沒錯,但瀏覽器幫使用者預載感覺好像怪怪的?

In essence, Firefox pre-downloads all trusted Web Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) intermediate CA certificates into Firefox via Mozilla’s Remote Settings infrastructure. This way, Firefox users avoid seeing an error page for one of the most common server configuration problems: not specifying proper intermediate CA certificates.

目前大約有 2000 筆資料:

Given this information, we periodically synthesize a list of these intermediate CA certificates and place them into Remote Settings. Currently the list contains over two thousand entries.

這個比較像是 client 端的 hack?


上個禮拜丟出來很轟動的一篇「side project」,三個月不斷的打穿蘋果的企業網路:「We Hacked Apple for 3 Months: Here’s What We Found」,對應的 Hacker News 討論可以在「We Hacked Apple for 3 Months (」這邊看到。


This was originally meant to be a side project that we'd work on every once in a while, but with all of the extra free time with the pandemic we each ended up putting a few hundred hours into it.

這是五個人通力合作打了三個月出來的成果,依照他們的回報數字,共打出了 55 個「洞」,考慮到週休的情況,幾乎是天天打洞出來玩:

There were a total of 55 vulnerabilities discovered with 11 critical severity, 29 high severity, 13 medium severity, and 2 low severity reports. These severities were assessed by us for summarization purposes and are dependent on a mix of CVSS and our understanding of the business related impact.

文章裡沒有對每個安裝漏洞都描述,但有針對一些比較「有趣」的漏洞說明,雖然看了以後知道是怎麼一回事,但對這些手法沒這麼熟,你叫我打我還是不會打啊 XDDD 反而是當作表演藝術來看...

用 ESP8266 模擬 PC-XT...

看到拿 ESP8266 模擬 PC-XT,是個懷古時間:「IBM PC-XT Emulator on an ESP8266」。

現在小板子的 CPU 跟記憶體都比三十年前的桌機還要大了,直接在上面跑模擬器就算慢一點也已經不是問題了... 直接上麵包板接起來跑:

然後也可以跑 Windows 3.0:

純粹 hacking 的專案 XD

實做 Twitter 同步到 Facebook 的程式

幾個月前 Facebook 把 API 拿掉了,大家都不能用 API 發文,本來想說就放掉這個平台,結果被老人家問怎麼都沒更新,因為老人家都是靠兒子的 Facebook 確認生存,看到沒更新就很擔心... XD

由於 API 沒得用了,所以得自己 hack。這邊先列重點:

  • chromium + VNC 登入後,用 chromium headless + selenium 發文。
  • 對於「網頁的穩定性」來說 (i.e. 常不常改版造成我的程式發文失敗),mbasic( > m > www。


HTTP/2 時代的 API 設計

在「Let’s Stop Building APIs Around a Network Hack」這邊提到了以前為了解決 HTTP/1.1 的問題而發展出來的 workaround,在 2015 年發展出來的 HTTP/2 從底層直接解了不少問題,加上很快被許多瀏覽器支援 (就算不支援 HTTP/2 也只是降到 HTTP/1.1 跑,比較慢而已):

Guess what else was released in May 2015? RFC 7540, otherwise known as HTTP/2. In retrospect this seems highly poetic, as HTTP/2 kinda makes the compound document aspect of JSON-API a little bit pointless, and compound documents to me go hand in hand with what JSON-API is as a standard.

2012 年在 MOPCON 第一屆講的「API Design Optimized for Mobile Platform」剛好就是這個主題:

有種懷念感... XD

HHVM 的後續

官方對於 HHVM 的未來提出了說明:「The Future of HHVM」。重點就是他們不打算以 PHP7 為目標,打算關起來自己玩...:

Consequently, HHVM will not aim to target PHP7. The HHVM team believes that we have a clear path toward making Hack a fantastic language for web development, untethered from its PHP origins.

如果以 Packagist 上的資料來看 (PHP Versions Stats - 2017.1 Edition),HHVM 的數量應該是沒人了:

And because a few people have asked me this recently, while HHVM usage is not included above in the graph it is at 0.36% which is a third of PHP 5.3 usage and really hardly significant. I personally think it's fine to support it still in libraries if it just works, or if the fixes involved are minor. If not then it's probably not worth the time investment.

Comment 的地方有註明這是扣掉 CI 的量:

@ocramius: These numbers ignore Travis CI and other CI systems that set the "CI" env var in their workers. Without excluding those HHVM is around 0.95% so it's still low but those .36% is probably actual usage.

這樣就放心可以完全不用管 HHVM 了 XDDD

換 Ubuntu 的字型... (Andada、PT Sans Captian、Hack)

在 HiDPI 4K 螢幕下挑字型的基準跟以往普通 DPI 螢幕完全不同。以往會受到當畫素不夠時的限制,在 HiDPI 下就不需要考慮這點了...

我三不五十就會換個字型用 (換心情),所以之後有可能會再換掉... 這次挑選的基準有三個:

  • 免費可在網路上下載個人使用的。
  • 字的重量要重一些。
  • sans 與 monospace 的字要帶有一點 serif 的感覺。

我把 fontconfig 設定放在 99-local.conf 這邊,有興趣的可以直接拉回去丟到 /etc/fonts/conf.d/ 裡用...

Andada 是拿來定義 sans 的,長這樣:(出自「Andada Font Free by Huerta Tipográfica」)

PT Sans Captain 是拿來定義 serif 的,長這樣:(出自「PT Sans Font Free by Paratype」)

Hack 是拿來定義 monospace 的,長這樣:(出自「Hack Font Free by Chris Simpkins」)

英國法院認為 GCHQ 偷黑別人機器是合法的

出自「Tribunal rules computer hacking by GCHQ is not illegal」這篇報導。在 Edward Snowden 爆料美國與英國政府都在幹黑的後,Privacy International 就提出訴訟控告 GCHQ,但前幾天法院認定這樣是合法的:

Campaigners Privacy International have lost a legal challenge claiming the spying post's hacking operations are too intrusive and break European law.

The case was launched after revelations by US whistleblower Edward Snowden about the extent of US and UK spying.

接下來的戰場會變成在 Investigatory Powers Bill 上面?還是會繼續有上訴?

RSA Conference 2015 禁止 Show Girl

前幾天的消息:「RSA Conference Bans "Booth Babes"」。報導出自於「RSA Conference bans ‘booth babes’」。


All Expo staff are expected to dress in business and/or business casual attire. Exhibitors should ensure that the attire of al staff they deploy at their booth (whether the exhibitor’s direct employees or their contractors) be considered appropriate in a professional environment. Attire of an overly revealing or suggestive nature is not permitted. Examples of such attire may include but are not restricted to:

  • Tops displaying excessive cleavage;
  • Tank tops, halter tops, camisole tops or tube tops;
  • Miniskirts or minidresses;
  • Shorts;
  • Lycra (or other Second-Skin) bodysuits;
  • Objectionable or offensive costumes.

These guidelines are applicable to all booth staff, regardless of gender, and will be strictly enforced. We reserve the right to request that individual booth staff change their attire or leave the premises immediately if we feel their appearance might be offensive to other exhibitors or attendees.

讓我想起 2009 年 Yahoo! 辦的 Taiwan Open Hack Day:「Yahoo Sorry About Lap Dancers at Hack Day in Taiwan–So What's the Excuse for Last Year's Go-Go Girls?」。