AWS CloudHSM 支援 FIPS 140-2 Level 3 了

AWS CloudHSM 推出了一些新功能:「AWS CloudHSM Update – Cost Effective Hardware Key Management at Cloud Scale for Sensitive & Regulated Workloads」。

其中比較特別的是從以前只支援 Level 2 變成支援 Level 3 了:

More Secure – CloudHSM Classic (the original model) supports the generation and use of keys that comply with FIPS 140-2 Level 2. We’re stepping that up a notch today with support for FIPS 140-2 Level 3, with security mechanisms that are designed to detect and respond to physical attempts to access or modify the HSM.

在維基百科裡面有提到 Level 2 與 Level 3 的要求:

Security Level 2 improves upon the physical security mechanisms of a Security Level 1 cryptographic module by requiring features that show evidence of tampering, including tamper-evident coatings or seals that must be broken to attain physical access to the plaintext cryptographic keys and critical security parameters (CSPs) within the module, or pick-resistant locks on covers or doors to protect against unauthorized physical access.

In addition to the tamper-evident physical security mechanisms required at Security Level 2, Security Level 3 attempts to prevent the intruder from gaining access to CSPs held within the cryptographic module. Physical security mechanisms required at Security Level 3 are intended to have a high probability of detecting and responding to attempts at physical access, use or modification of the cryptographic module. The physical security mechanisms may include the use of strong enclosures and tamper-detection/response circuitry that zeroes all plaintext CSPs when the removable covers/doors of the cryptographic module are opened.

主動式偵測以及銷毀算是 Level 3 比 Level 2 安全的地方。


Pay As You Go – CloudHSM is now offered under a pay-as-you-go model that is simpler and more cost-effective, with no up-front fees.

BoringSSL 的 FIPS 140-2 驗證

看到由 Google 主導的 BoringSSL 有計劃將其中一塊申請 FIPS 140-2 的驗證計畫 (BoringCrypto 的部份):「FIPS 140-2」。

其中 FIPS 140-2 最有名的後門應該是 Dual_EC_DRBG (定義於 NIST SP 800-90A,被 FIPS 140-2 引用),所以特地講清楚他們選擇哪個演算法:

FIPS 140-2 requires that one of its PRNGs be used (which they call DRBGs). In BoringCrypto, we use CTR-DRBG with AES-256 exclusively and RAND_bytes (the primary interface for the rest of the system to get random data) takes its output from there.

而且還花了不少篇幅解釋 PRNG 的細節。

AWS 的 CloudHSM...

AWS 推出 CloudHSM 服務:「AWS CloudHSM - Secure Key Storage and Cryptographic Operations」。

不便宜,看起來是為了需要 NIST FIPS 140-2 需求而設的吧?跑的是 Luna SA - Ethernet-Attached HSM,可以達到 Level 3 的安全性...

然後遇到安全性時的老問題,要怎麼 audit:

感覺上是個口水戰,來拉板凳... XD