Tag Archives: europe

CloudFront 在北美增加了一堆節點...

CloudFront 在北美增加了一堆節點:「Amazon CloudFront announces ten new Edge locations in North America, Europe, and Asia」。

北美一口氣增開了八個,提升了 40% 的 capacity:

Amazon CloudFront announces ten new Edge locations, adding to our global presence. Eight of the new Edge locations are in North America: Houston, Texas (our first location in this city), Chicago, Illinois, Newark, New Jersey, Los Angeles, California, and Ashburn, Virginia. We also added an Edge location in Berlin, Germany, as well as one in Tokyo, Japan.

With this launch, CloudFront will increase its request processing capacity by up to 40%, on average, in the North American cities.



在「Radical open-access plan could spell end to journal subscriptions」這邊看到歐洲 11 個研究機構資助者成立了「cOAlition S」,推動研究論文的開放存取。

目標是在 2020 年開始,由這些機構所資助的研究都必須投在符合完全開放條件的平台上:

cOAlition S signals the commitment to implement, by 1 January 2020, the necessary measures to fulfil its main principle: “By 2020 scientific publications that result from research funded by public grants provided by participating national and European research councils and funding bodies, must be published in compliant Open Access Journals or on compliant Open Access Platforms.

而現在大約只有 15%:

According to a December 2017 analysis, only around 15% of journals publish work immediately as open access (see ‘Publishing models’) — financed by charging per-article fees to authors or their funders, negotiating general open-publishing contracts with funders, or through other means.


AWS 巴黎區開放

AWS 在巴黎的 region 開放了:「Now Open AWS EU (Paris) Region」。

Today we are launching our 18th AWS Region, our fourth in Europe. Located in the Paris area, AWS customers can use this Region to better serve customers in and around France.


  • Ireland (愛爾蘭)
  • Frankfurt (德國)
  • London (英國)
  • Paris (法國)

香港區什麼時候要開呢... o_o (參考「In the Works – AWS Region in Hong Kong」)


歐盟在 2014 年做了關於盜版與銷量的研究,結果一直被壓到最近才發表出來 (於是就大概可以猜到結論了...):「EU Piracy Report Suppression Raises Questions Over Transparency」。

“In general, the results do not show robust statistical evidence of displacement of sales by online copyright infringements,” the study notes.


The study found that piracy had a slightly positive effect on the videogames industry, suggesting that those who play pirate games eventually become buyers of official content.

另外也描述了現有電影與 TV-series 定價策略偏高:

“Overall, the analysis indicates that for films and TV-series current prices are higher than 80 per cent of the illegal downloaders and streamers are willing to pay,” the study notes.


AWS EU (Stockholm) Region

由老大 Werner Vogels 出來講一些細節...

AWS EU (Stockholm) Region 預定在 2018 年開張營業:「Välkommen till Stockholm – An AWS Region is coming to the Nordics」。

The new AWS EU (Stockholm) Region will have three Availability Zones and will be ready for customers to use in 2018.

這會是歐洲第五個 Region (還有一個法國預定在今年開):

The new AWS EU (Stockholm) Region, coupled with the existing AWS Regions in Dublin, Frankfurt, and London, and a future one in France, will provide customers with quick, low-latency access to websites, mobile applications, games, SaaS applications, big data analysis, Internet of Things (IoT) applications, and more.

Google 的 Guetzli,對 JPEG 的壓縮演算法

Google Research Europe 推出的演算法,在不動 decoder 的情況下,要怎麼樣壓出又小又清晰的 JPEG 圖片:「Announcing Guetzli: A New Open Source JPEG Encoder」,論文可以在「Guetzli: Perceptually Guided JPEG Encoder」這邊下載,程式碼則可以在 GitHub 上的 google/guetzli 取得。

othree 也寫了一篇「Guetzli: A New Open Source JPEG Encoder」介紹 Guetzli。

Guetzli 在同樣的品質下,比現有的壓縮法可以再壓榨出 29%~45% 的空間,這算是非常驚人的數字:

We reach a 29-45% reduction in data size for a given perceptual distance, according to Butteraugli, in comparison to other compressors we tried.

但代價是需要極為大量的 CPU resource 計算,這使得他沒辦法用在太動態的環境裡:

Guetzli's computation is currently extremely slow, which limits its applicability to compressing static content and serving as a proof- of-concept that we can achieve significant reductions in size by combining advanced psychovisual models with lossy compression techniques.

但只要是在批次處理產生的過程 (不需要太在意要等很久),都可以考慮用這個工具...

AWS 老大宣佈 2016 年年底會開倫敦機房

才講完要成立南韓機房的計畫「AWS 將在 2016 年成立南韓機房」,直接由老大 Werner Vogels 加碼宣佈了倫敦機房 (英國機房) 的計畫:「London Calling! An AWS Region is coming to the UK!」。

預定在 2016 年年底或是 2017 年年初對外運作,這將會成為歐洲的第三個機房,而前兩個是冰島愛爾蘭與德國。可以看出來 2016 年大舉擴張的態勢...

CloudFront Price Class 100 奇怪的現象

剛剛發現奇怪的現象,晚點來問問看好了... 手上的 test-priceclass100.gslin.org 設定為 Only Use US and Europe:

但在 SmokePing 上卻看到極低的 latency 而覺得納悶:

動手查了一些資料發現是被導到台灣的點... 可以看到先問 (HiNet 光世代預設的 DNS) 後得到了這些 IP:

gslin@GSLIN-HOME1404 [~] [02:43/W4] dig test-priceclass100.gslin.org @

; <<>> DiG 9.9.5-3ubuntu0.5-Ubuntu <<>> test-priceclass100.gslin.org @
;; global options: +cmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 48453
;; flags: qr rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 9, AUTHORITY: 0, ADDITIONAL: 1

; EDNS: version: 0, flags:; udp: 3072
;test-priceclass100.gslin.org.  IN      A

test-priceclass100.gslin.org. 300 IN    CNAME   d265g70k07is7o.cloudfront.net.
d265g70k07is7o.cloudfront.net. 60 IN    A
d265g70k07is7o.cloudfront.net. 60 IN    A
d265g70k07is7o.cloudfront.net. 60 IN    A
d265g70k07is7o.cloudfront.net. 60 IN    A
d265g70k07is7o.cloudfront.net. 60 IN    A
d265g70k07is7o.cloudfront.net. 60 IN    A
d265g70k07is7o.cloudfront.net. 60 IN    A
d265g70k07is7o.cloudfront.net. 60 IN    A

;; Query time: 178 msec
;; WHEN: Thu Oct 22 02:43:24 CST 2015
;; MSG SIZE  rcvd: 228

接下來跑 mtr 看,發現是台灣的節點:

gslin@GSLIN-HOME1404 [~] [02:43/W4] mtr --report -n
Start: Thu Oct 22 02:43:37 2015
HOST: GSLIN-HOME1404              Loss%   Snt   Last   Avg  Best  Wrst StDev
  1.|--              0.0%    10    8.6   9.1   8.4   9.9   0.3
  2.|--               0.0%    10    8.1   9.0   8.0   9.9   0.3
  3.|--             0.0%    10    9.3  11.8   8.1  31.7   7.1
  4.|--               0.0%    10   12.9  13.9   9.6  17.9   2.9
  5.|--              0.0%    10    8.7  13.1   8.7  35.3   8.0
  6.|--              0.0%    10    9.9  10.1   9.3  10.9   0.3
  7.|--               0.0%    10    9.4  10.3   9.4  11.4   0.3
  8.|--            0.0%    10   11.0  10.8   9.5  13.5   1.0
  9.|--              0.0%    10   10.7   9.4   8.4  10.7   0.7


歐盟開始調查 Google 的壟斷

歐盟開始調查 Google 的壟斷:「Europe to accuse Google of illegally abusing its dominance」,原始報導出自「Europe to accuse Google of illegally abusing its dominance」。

不知道是不是跟先前在「Google 利用搜索的壟斷優勢打擊競爭對手」提到的文件有關:

AWS 在歐洲開第二個資料中心了:德國

上次開 us-west-1 (Ireland) 是 2008 年 12 月了,離這次 eu-central-1 (Frankfurt) 開在德國差了快八年:「Now Open - AWS Germany (Frankfurt) Region - EC2, DynamoDB, S3, and Much More」。

六月的時候有人發現 eu-central-1 這個代碼:「Amazon AWS builds a data center in Germany: Nice idea!」。


價錢的部份比 eu-west-1 貴一點點而已,對於要符合歐盟法令將資料留在歐盟地區,並且希望有遠距離異地建設的服務來說,解決了相當多的問題 :p

剛剛踹了 ec2.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com 這個 domain,看起來目前亞洲地區都還是從美國西岸再一路過去,不知道之後會不會再最佳化這塊,走俄羅斯或是有辦法走東歐過去...