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Amazon ECS 與 AWS Fargate 都納入 Amazon Compute SLA 計算

AWS 宣佈的這兩個服務 (Amazon ECSAWS Fargate) 都納入 99.99% 的 SLA 合約範圍:「Amazon Compute Service Level Agreement Extended to Amazon ECS and AWS Fargate」。

Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS) and AWS Fargate are now included in the Amazon Compute Service Level Agreement (SLA) for 99.99% uptime and availability.

ECS 已經跑一陣子了可以理解,但 Fargate 的概念算比較新,剛出來沒多久就決定放進去比較意外...

AWS 提昇了 Amazon EBS 能提供的效能上限

AWS 宣佈 Amazon EBS 可以提供的效能往上提高了 (這邊講的是 Provisioned IOPS SSD,代號 io1):「Amazon EBS Improves Performance for io1 Volumes」。

單一 volume 的 IOPS 從 20K 變成 32K,thoughput 從 320MB/sec 變成 500MB/sec:

Today we are announcing an improvement in performance of Provisioned IOPS SSD (io1) Volumes from 20,000 IOPS to 32,000 IOPS and from 320 MB/s to 500 MB/s of throughput per volume.

應該是科技的進步帶動的 XD

Amazon EKS 與 AWS Fargate

在今年的 AWS re:Invent 2017 上宣佈 Amazon ECS 也支援 Kubernetes,也就是 Amazon EKS:「Amazon Elastic Container Service for Kubernetes」,一個用的人夠多就支援的概念...

目前這個服務還在 Preview,所以要申請才能用:

Amazon EKS is available in Preview. We look forward to hearing your feedback.

另外一個在 AWS re:Invent 2017 上宣佈的是 AWS Fargate,讓你連 Amazon ECS 或是 Amazon EKS 都不用管的服務,直接按照 container 的大小收費:「Introducing AWS Fargate – Run Containers without Managing Infrastructure」、「AWS Fargate: A Product Overview」。

第一個有疑慮的點是,是否會跟其他人共用相同的 host,也就是 isolation 的程度。這點在 AWS 的人在 Hacker News 上的這邊有回覆,在不同的 cluster 上不會使用同樣的底層:

NathanKP 4 days ago [-]
Fargate isolation is at the cluster level. Apps running in the same cluster may share the underlying infrastructure, apps running in different clusters won't.

另外也提到每個 cluster 都是使用者自己產生的:

NathanKP 3 days ago [-]
A customer creates a cluster on their account. You as a customer can create one or more Fargate clusters on your account to launch your containers in.

不是很正面的回覆,而且不是在官方的 forum 回的,安全性就要大家自己判斷了...

另外也有有提到與 Amazon EC2 相比,價錢當然會比較貴,但可以預期會降低 engineer 的時間成本:

NathanKP 4 days ago [-]
AWS employee here. Just want to say that we actually had a typo in the per second pricing on launch. The actual pricing is:
$0.0506 per CPU per hour
$0.0127 per GB of memory per hour
Fargate is definitely more expensive than running and operating an EC2 instance yourself, but for many companies the amount that is saved by needing to spend less engineer time on devops will make it worth it right now, and as we iterate I expect this balance to continue to tip. AWS has dropped prices more than 60 times since we started out.

目前只能接 Amazon ECS,預定 2018 可以接 Amazon EKS:

I will tell you that we plan to support launching containers on Fargate using Amazon EKS in 2018.

而目前這個版本 (可以接 Amazon ECS 的版本) 在 us-east-1 已經開放了:

Fargate is available today in the US East (Northern Virginia) region.

Amazon EFS 推出 File Sync 服務

先前 Amazon EFS 需要找台機器掛上去再同步 (無論是 EC2 的機器還是透過 VPN 將自己的機器接上去),現在推出可以直接把檔案同步進去的服務了:「Sync Files to Amazon Elastic File System Quickly, Easily and Securely with EFS File Sync」。

不過不是所有提供 Amazon EFS 的區域都有,目前只有 us-east-1us-east-2us-west-2 以及 eu-west-1

EFS File Sync is available in the US East (N. Virginia), US East (Ohio), US West (Oregon), and EU (Ireland) regions, with availability in the EU (Frankfurt) and Asia Pacific (Sydney) regions coming in December 2017.

另外這是有費用的,目前有提供的四區都是 USD$0.01/GB。

AWS 提供 Hybrid Cloud 環境下 DNS 管理的說明

不知道為什麼出現在 browser tab 上,不知道是哪邊看到的... AWS 放出了一份文件,在講 hybrid cloud 環境下當你同時有一般 IDC 機房,而且使用內部 domain 在管理時,網路與 AWS 打通後要怎麼解決 DNS resolver 的問題:「Hybrid Cloud DNS Solutions for Amazon VPC」。

有些東西在官方的說明文件內都寫過,但是是 AWS 的特殊設計,這邊就會重複說明 XDDD

像是這份文件裡提到 Amazon DNS Server 一定會在 VPC 的 base 位置加二 (舉例來說,10.0.0.0/16 的 VPC,Amazon DNS Server 會在 10.0.0.2):

Amazon DNS Server
The Amazon DNS Server in a VPC provides full public DNS resolution, with additional resolution for internal records for the VPC and customer-defined Route 53 private DNS records.4 The AmazonProvidedDNS maps to a DNS server running on a reserved IP address at the base of the VPC network range, plus two. For example, the DNS Server on a 10.0.0.0/16 network is located at 10.0.0.2. For VPCs with multiple CIDR blocks, the DNS server IP address is located in the primary CIDR block.

在官方文件裡,則是在「DHCP Options Sets」這邊提到一樣的事情:

When you create a VPC, we automatically create a set of DHCP options and associate them with the VPC. This set includes two options: domain-name-servers=AmazonProvidedDNS, and domain-name=domain-name-for-your-region. AmazonProvidedDNS is an Amazon DNS server, and this option enables DNS for instances that need to communicate over the VPC's Internet gateway. The string AmazonProvidedDNS maps to a DNS server running on a reserved IP address at the base of the VPC IPv4 network range, plus two. For example, the DNS Server on a 10.0.0.0/16 network is located at 10.0.0.2. For VPCs with multiple IPv4 CIDR blocks, the DNS server IP address is located in the primary CIDR block.

另外也還是有些東西在官方的說明文件內沒看過,像是講到 Elastic Network Interface (ENI) 對 Amazon DNS Server 是有封包數量限制的;這點我沒在官方文件上找到,明顯在量太大的時候會中獎,然後開 Support Ticket 才會發現的啊 XDDD:

Each network interface in an Amazon VPC has a hard limit of 1024 packets that it can send to the Amazon Provided DNS server every second.

Anyway... 這份文件裡面提供三種解法:

  • Secondary DNS in a VPC,直接用程式抄一份到 Amazon Route 53 上,這樣 Amazon DNS Server 就可以直接看到了,這也是 AWS 在一般情況下比較推薦的作法。
  • Highly Distributed Forwarders,每台 instance 都跑 Unbound,然後針對不同的 domain 導開,這樣可以有效避開單一 ENI 對 Amazon DNS Server 的封包數量限制,但缺點是這樣的設計通常會需要像是 Puppet 或是 Chef 之類的軟體管理工具才會比較好設定。
  • Zonal Forwarders Using Supersede,就是在上面架設一組 Unbound 伺服器集中管理,透過 DHCP 設定讓 instance 用。但就要注意量不能太大,不然 ENI 對 Amazon DNS Server 的限制可能會爆掉 XD

都可以考慮看看...

AWS 推出 Cloud Native Networking,在每個 Container 內都有自己獨立的網路卡

AWSAmazon ECS 變得更好用了:「Introducing Cloud Native Networking for Amazon ECS Containers」。

Today, AWS announced task networking for Amazon ECS. This feature brings Amazon EC2 networking capabilities to tasks using elastic network interfaces.

awsvpc 模式下會給每個 container 一個獨立的網路卡 (Elastic Network Interface,ENI):

這樣有兩個好處。第一個是 port 就不需要拆開,所有 container 如果都是跑 nginx,都可以跑在同一個 port (80 或是 443),這對於前端應用程式會簡單一些。第二個整合了 AWS 的 security group,這對在 AWS 上本來就會使用 security group 的大多數人來說就可以輕鬆整合了。

AWS 推出將 Classic Load Balancer 轉換成 Application Load Balancer 或 Network Load Balancer 的功能

AWS 應該是希望大家趕快把能換的 ELB 都換成新的 ALB 與 NLB,所以推出這個功能:「New One-step Migration Wizard to Migrate a Classic Load Balancer」。

Today, AWS announced the ability to migrate from a Classic Load Balancer to an Application Load Balancer or a Network Load Balancer in one step using a console-based migration wizard.

不過 ELB 有一些功能是目前 ALB 與 NLB 沒有的,像是一般性的 SSL offload (而非 HTTPS offload),以及舊客戶會有的 EC2-Classic:

不知道這兩個問題之後會推出什麼樣的方案解決...

AWS PrivateLink

AWS 計畫把先前設計的 VPC Endpoint 都併到 AWS PrivateLink 裡,統一管理:「New – AWS PrivateLink for AWS Services: Kinesis, Service Catalog, EC2 Systems Manager, Amazon EC2 APIs, and ELB APIs in your VPC」。

Today we are announcing AWS PrivateLink, the newest generation of VPC Endpoints which is designed for customers to access AWS services in a highly available and scalable manner, while keeping all the traffic within the AWS network. Kinesis, Service Catalog, Amazon EC2, EC2 Systems Manager (SSM), and Elastic Load Balancing (ELB) APIs are now available to use inside your VPC, with support for more services coming soon such as Key Management Service (KMS) and Amazon Cloudwatch.

這樣就不用弄 proxy server 然後在上面管一堆 policy 了... (先不講自己搞 HA 的麻煩事,光是有些程式還得 patch 才能支援 proxy 就會想翻桌了 XD)

AWS NLB 也可以指定 IP address 當後端了

月初的時候 AWS ALB 支援 IP address 當後端 (AWS ALB 可以設定 IP address 當作後端伺服器了),然後推出 AWS NLB (AWS 推出新的 Load Balancer:NLB (Network Load Balancer)),然後這個功能也被做到 NLB 上了:「Elastic Load Balancing: Network Load Balancer now supports load balancing to IP addresses as targets for AWS and on-premises resources」。

就如同說明的,這樣可以透過 VPN 架構 (無論是 AWS Direct Connect 或是一般的 IPsec VPN) 共用機房與雲端上的資源:

We are pleased to announce that Network Load Balancers can now distribute traffic to AWS resources using their IP addresses as targets in addition to the instance IDs. You can now also load balance to resources in on-premises locations reachable over AWS Direct Connect and resources in EC2-Classic. Load balancing across AWS and on-premises resources using the same load balancer makes it easy for you to migrate-to-cloud, burst-to-cloud, or failover-to-cloud.

除了中國區以外的 region 都可以用這個功能了:

Load balancing using IP addresses is available today for existing and new Network Load Balancers in all public AWS regions except the China (Beijing) region. You can get started using the AWS Management Console, AWS Command Line Interface (CLI), or AWS SDK.

在 EC2 上使用 25Gbps 的網路

Amazon EC2 上許多系列最大台的機器現在都可以透過特殊界面跑到 25Gbps 了:「Announcing improved networking performance for Amazon EC2 instances」。

Amazon EC2 instances now provide a maximum bandwidth of 25 Gbps. This feature is available on the largest instance sizes of the M4, X1, P2, R4, I3, F1, and G3 instance types. Using Elastic Network Adapter (ENA) based Enhanced Networking, customers can utilize up to 25 Gbps of bandwidth.

除了 AWS 提供的的 AMI 外,另外在一些官方作業系統也都有支援:

ENA driver is installed in the latest Amazon Machine Images (AMIs) for the following operating systems: Amazon Linux, Ubuntu 14.04 and 16.04, RHEL 7.4, SLES 12, Windows Server 2008R2, 2012, 2012R2 and 2016. ENA Linux driver source code is also available on Github.com for developers to integrate in their AMIs.

如果不在上面的,也可以透過 GitHub 上的 amzn/amzn-drivers (Official repository of the Elastic Network Adapter (ENA) network adapter for Linux and FreeBSD operating systems) 自己 porting... (如果你一定要想辦法用的話)

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