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HTTPS Everywhere 改變更新 Ruleset 機制,變成定時更新...

HTTPS Everywhere 是我很喜歡的一個套件,裡面有 Ruleset,會將 Ruleset 表內認定有支援 HTTPS 網站的 HTTP request 都改成 HTTPS,這可以降低被攔截的風險。像是網站雖然有 HSTS 但第一次連線時走 HTTP 的情況,以及網站本身有支援 HTTPS 但沒有設定 HSTS 時,在網址列上誤打 HTTP 版本的情況。

先前版本的 Ruleset 是隨著軟體更新時,包在軟體內一起更新。這樣的缺點是更新速度比較慢,但好處是不需要伺服器端,而且隱私性也比較高。而現在 EFF 決定還是要推出線上更新的版本,以加速 Ruleset 更新的速度:「HTTPS Everywhere Introduces New Feature: Continual Ruleset Updates」。

We've modified the extension to periodically check in with EFF to see if a new list is available.

而頻寬的部份由 Fastly 贊助:

If you haven't already, please install and contribute to HTTPS Everywhere, and consider donating to EFF to support our work!

如果對這點有疑慮的,也還是可以關掉 auto updater 避免洩漏資訊給 EFF 或是 Fastly。

Firefox 對 HTTPS 網站中 "Referer" 的保護

Firefox 從 59 之後,在開啟 Private Browsing 的情況下,不會送出完整的 Referer:「Preventing data leaks by stripping path information in HTTP Referrers」。

這篇吸引到我的是 EFF 的研究員發現的事情:

EFF researchers discovered this leak of personal health data from healthcare.gov to DoubleClick.

其中 EFF 研究員的文章是「HealthCare.gov Sends Personal Data to Dozens of Tracking Websites」這篇。

更好的作法應該是平常就完全阻擋,像是 Firefox 可以用 Referrer Control 設定,或是 Chrome 裡用 Referer Control 設定。

Transport-Layer Encryption 與 End-to-End Encryption 的差異

EFF 的「Transport-Layer Encryption vs End-to-End Encryption - GIF」這篇文章介紹了 Transport-Layer Encryption 與 End-to-End Encryption 的差異,最後還給了一張 GIF 說明:

其實 GIF 給的範例還蠻清楚的,在 Transport-Layer Encryption 中服務提供商可以看到原始內容 (以 GIF 內提到的例子就是 Google),而在 End-to-End Encryption 中就不行,只有傳輸雙方可以知道原始內容。

然後文章裡也提到了 Tor Messenger,可以吃現有的通訊軟體,然後在上面疊出 End-to-End Encryption。

iOS 11 的無線網路與藍芽關假的讓 EFF 不爽...

這次 iOS 11 的無線網路與藍芽需要到 Settings (設定) 裡面才能有效關掉的設計,讓 EFF 不爽寫了一篇文章:「iOS 11’s Misleading “Off-ish” Setting for Bluetooth and Wi-Fi is Bad for User Security」。

On an iPhone, users might instinctively swipe up to open Control Center and toggle Wi-Fi and Bluetooth off from the quick settings. Each icon switches from blue to gray, leading a user to reasonably believe they have been turned off—in other words, fully disabled. In iOS 10, that was true. However, in iOS 11, the same setting change no longer actually turns Wi-Fi or Bluetooth “off.”

不過藍芽的洞真的不少,儘量避免吧... +_+

透過 DMCA takedown notice 非法下掉 Easylist 內的過濾條件

參考「Ad blocking is under attack」這邊,有業主 functionalclam.com 透過 DMCA takedown notice 發信要求 Easylist 移除過濾條件 (參考「2017-08-02-LevenLabs.md」),對應的 commit 參考「M: Removed due to DMCA takedown request」) 這邊。

這件事情再次證實了 DMCA takedown notice 被濫用的情況,明明不是侵權的情況卻被拿來濫用 (因為對原提出者唯一的處罰必須過反過來提告,然後要得自己舉證因為這樣受損)。

目前看起來 EFF 願意介入,就來看看後續了。

CloudFlare 把 HTTPS Everywhere 的清單拿到 CDN 上用所推出的產品...

這個產品就如同標題所說的方式而已,做起來不難,只是一直沒人做就是了:「How we brought HTTPS Everywhere to the cloud (part 1)」。

傳統的作法是直接硬幹下去換掉,或是用 header 讓瀏覽器主動轉過去:

A naive way to do this would be to just rewrite http:// links to https:// or let browsers do that with Upgrade-Insecure-Requests directive.

但這有必須有兩個假設成立才可以:

  • Each single HTTP sub-resource is also available via HTTPS.
  • It's available at the exact same domain and path after protocol upgrade (more often than you might think that's not the case).

而 HTTPS Everywhere 則是用人力確認了哪些網站可以這樣玩。CloudFlare 利用這份清單改寫程式碼裡面的 HTTP 連結,僅可能將 HTTP 資源換成 HTTPS。算是還不錯的方式...

之後有可能再推出對 HTTP images 與 HTTP assets 的 proxy cache?

Google 的 www.google.com 要上 HSTS 了

Google 宣佈 www.google.com 要上 HSTS 了:「Bringing HSTS to www.google.com」。

雖然都已經使用 EFFHTTPS Everywhere 在跑確保 HTTPS,但這個進展還是很重要,可以讓一般使用者受到保護...

Google 的切換計畫是會逐步增加 HSTS 的 max-age,確保中間出問題時造成的衝擊。一開始只會設一天,然後會逐步增加,最後增加到一年:

In the immediate term, we’re focused on increasing the duration that the header is active (‘max-age’). We've initially set the header’s max-age to one day; the short duration helps mitigate the risk of any potential problems with this roll-out. By increasing the max-age, however, we reduce the likelihood that an initial request to www.google.com happens over HTTP. Over the next few months, we will ramp up the max-age of the header to at least one year.

VENUE Act 對專利蟑螂的反擊

EFF 的「We Can't Keep Waiting: Pass the VENUE Act This Year」這篇寫的還蠻清楚的,VENUE Act (S. 2733) 是一個看起來頗有效的 workaround,先上這個 workaround 降低專利蟑螂的攻勢。

專利蟑螂 (通常是原告) 可以選擇任意一個聯邦法庭提出控告:

As the law stands now, patent owners have almost complete control over which federal district to file a case in. That’s a major problem.

而專利蟑螂會挑選對原告最有利的地區來提出控告,也就是美國德克薩斯東區聯邦地區法院 (U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Texas),這對被告方很不利:

According to the Mercatus Center and George Mason University, nearly half of all patent cases are filed in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Texas. That’s more than 70 times the average number of patent cases heard in other federal judicial districts.

Respected academics have identified evidence that procedures in the Eastern District of Texas unnecessarily favor plaintiffs and impose significant, unnecessary costs on companies and individuals accused of infringement, however questionable the patents and demands may be.

而 VENUE Act 則是拔掉這個武器,必須在與被告相關的主要地區提告。

Love your country, but never trust its government

Hacker News Daily 上看到的,在 Sun-2 的 bootloader 裡可以看到「Love your country, but never trust its government」這樣的字串:「Why the Sun 2 has the message "Love your country, but never trust its government"」。

這段字串是由 John Gilmore 當時在 Sun 開發時所放入的,John Gilmore 同時也是後來 EFF 創辦人之一,不過當初放入這段字串的目的是為了抓到盜版:

Yes. Vinod Khosla, first President of Sun, came to me at one point and said to put something hidden, triggered in an unexpected way, into the ROM Monitor, so that if somebody cloned the Sun Workstation (violating our software’s copyright), we could do that unexpected thing to the competitor’s demo workstation at a trade show and thereby prove that they had cloned it.

過了三十年後 John Gilmore 被挖出來問的回應也是蠻有趣的... (可以參考原文附上的信件)

而這句話現在回頭看也很經典,尤其是最近各國政府想要在 crypto system 裡面放後門的各種反應。

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