目前 AWS 台北區只能開 *.2xlarge 的機器

前面在「AWS 的台北區 (Local Zone) 開了」這邊有提到機器開不起來,剛剛查價錢的時候才發現只能開 {c5,g4dn,m5,r5}.2xlarge

改成 c5.2xlarge 然後就開起來了:

翻了目前所有的 local zone,看起來大多都是類似的情況,選擇性會很少... 目前只有邁阿密與洛杉磯的選擇比較多,這是邁阿密:

這是洛杉磯:

這樣目前要拿來當 VPS 取代品還不太好用,就真的是 local zone 的定位。

AWS 的台北區 (Local Zone) 開了

AWS 總算是宣佈啟用台北 Local Zone 了:「AWS Local Zones Expansion: Taipei and Delhi」,中文的公告在「AWS 宣布在台全新 AWS Local Zone 正式啟用」。

翻了一下先前的預告是六月初的時候,大概是四個月前,當時寫了「AWS 宣佈將在台灣推出 Local Zone」這篇。

看 Jeff Barr 提供的 screenshot 可以看到如同先前了解的,就是掛在東京區下面 (ap-northeast-1):

比較奇怪的地方是啟用的方式,我是在在 EC2 的 dashboard 上看到這個進去開 (然後是 Service health),在 VPC 裡面反而沒看到:

然後開了之後要等他幾分鐘啟用,不是幾秒後 refresh 就會出現,我大概等了兩分鐘,跟當初開其他 non-default region 的經驗類似:

然後再回到 VPC 裡面開 subnet,開完後再回到 EC2 上開機器,流程不是很直覺。

另外從「AWS Local Zones features」這邊可以看到目前的服務有限,另外 Jeff Barr 的公告也可以看到目前台北區支援的項目:

After you do this, you can launch Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instances, create Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) volumes,and make use of other services including Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS), Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Service (Amazon EKS), and Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC). The new Local Zones include T3, C5, M5, R5, and G4dn instances in select sizes, along with General Purpose SSD (gp2) EBS volumes.

不過這邊有不一致的地方:在 AWS 頁面上是寫 T3 是 upcoming,但 Jeff Barr 的公告則是說可以用 T3,這點晚點來測試看看才知道哪個是對的... 因為我現在連 m5.large 也開不起來:

只要把設定換到東京的 subnet 內就正常,這個錯誤訊息實在是不知道發生什麼事情 (已經設 gp2),還得繼續摸...

EC2-Classic 的狀態

Twitter 上看到這個:

2022/08/15 是 EC2-Classic 最後活著的時間,先前在「AWS 宣佈 EC2-Classic 退役的計畫」這篇也有提到。

在官方的公告文章「EC2-Classic Networking is Retiring – Here’s How to Prepare」這邊裡面有提到最後的日期:

On August 15, 2022 we expect all migrations to be complete, with no remaining EC2-Classic resources present in any AWS account.

不過畢竟是用 expect,應該還有客戶沒有換過去,而且 AWS 官方好像也沒有提到這個 milestone...

Amazon EC2 推出 r6a 的機種

Amazon EC2 推出了 r6a (AMD) 的機種:「New – Amazon EC2 R6a Instances Powered by 3rd Gen AMD EPYC Processors for Memory-Intensive Workloads」。

看了一下美東的價錢,r6ar5a 貴了一點點,其中 r6a.24xlarge 是 US$5.4432/hour,而 r5a.24xlarge 則是 US$5.424/hour。

官方宣稱與 r5a 相比有 35% 的 C/P 值改善:

Up to 35 percent higher price performance per vCPU versus comparable R5a instances

然後可以提供更大的機器,之前 r5a 的最大台機器是 r5a.24xlarge (96 vCPU + 768GB RAM),但 r6a 則是拉到了 r6a.48xlarge 或是 r6a.metal (192 vCPU + 1536GB RAM)。

不過目前看起來支援的地區還有限,目前工作用到的 ap-southeast-1 看起來還要再等一下:

You can launch R6a instances today in the AWS US East (N. Virginia, Ohio), US West (Oregon), Asia Pacific (Mumbai) and Europe (Frankfurt, Ireland) as On-Demand, Spot, and Reserved Instances or as part of a Savings Plan.

EC2 Auto Scaling 可以透過機械學習來預開機器了

Amazon EC2 的新功能,Auto Scaling 可以透過歷史資料分析預開機器了:「Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling customers can now monitor their predictive scaling policy using Amazon CloudWatch」。

這是吃 CloudWatch 的資料做的,在「Predictive scaling for Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling」這份文件裡面有提到:

Predictive scaling uses machine learning to predict capacity requirements based on historical data from CloudWatch.

還是希望把 Auto Scaling 整合 Lambda 啦,這樣就是 turing machine 了...

Hacker News 前幾天炸很久的 root cause

前幾天 Hacker News 炸了很久,如果是從 Twitter 上的資料來看,是從 2022/07/08 14:08 UTC 這篇:

中間還原失敗 (2022/07/08 17:35 UTC):

到最後恢復 (2022/07/08 20:48 UTC):

Twitter 這邊的資料看起來差不多是六個小時多,以一個應該是只有 database 需要還原的站台來說的確是蠻久的,所以後續在「HN is up again」這邊就有在討論原因,裡面 HN 的老大 dang 也有提到 downtime 是七個小時多:

8 hours of downtime, but not data loss, since there was no data to lose during the downtime.

Last post before we went down (2022-07-08 12:46:04 UTC): https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=32026565

First post once we were back up (2022-07-08 20:30:55 UTC): https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=32026571 (hey, that's this thread! how'd you do that, tpmx?)

So, 7h 45m of downtime. What we don't know is how many posts (or votes, etc.) happened after our last backup, and were therefore lost. The latest vote we have was at 2022-07-08 12:46:05 UTC, which is about the same as the last post.

There can't be many lost posts or votes, though, because I checked HN Search (https://hn.algolia.com/) just before we brought HN back up, and their most recent comment and story were behind ours. That means our last backup on the ill-fated server was taken after the last API update (HN Search relies on our API), and the API gets updated every 30 seconds.

I'm not saying that's a rock-solid argument, but it suggests that 30 seconds is an upper bound on how much data we lost.

另外大家就在找 dang 的回應是什麼 (畢竟是第一手資料),用 Ctrl-F 找一下就看到有趣的猜測,從 32028511 這個節點可以看到這串有趣的討論,首先是 mikeiem

You are never going to guess how long the HN SSDs were in the servers... never ever... OK... I'll tell you: 4.5years. I am not even kidding.

然後是 kabdib 的回應:

Let me narrow my guess: They hit 4 years, 206 days and 16 hours . . . or 40,000 hours.

And that they were sold by HP or Dell, and manufactured by SanDisk.

Do I win a prize?

(None of us win prizes on this one).

接著就是 dang 說他覺得這個猜測很有可能:

Wow. It's possible that you have nailed this.

Edit: here's why I like this theory. I don't believe that the two disks had similar levels of wear, because the primary server would get more writes than the standby, and we switched between the two so rarely. The idea that they would have failed within hours of each other because of wear doesn't seem plausible.

But the two servers were set up at the same time, and it's possible that the two SSDs had been manufactured around the same time (same make and model). The idea that they hit the 40,000 hour mark within a few hours of each other seems entirely plausible.

Mike of M5 (mikiem in this thread) told us today that it "smelled like a timing issue" to him, and that is squarely in this territory.

後續他也從自家的 /newest 裡面撈了相關的資料出來,依照他撈出來的關鍵字,看起來是用 HPE 出的 SSD:

It's also an example of the dharma of /newest – the rising and falling away of stories that get no attention:

HPE releases urgent fix to stop enterprise SSDs conking out at 40K hours - https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=22706968 - March 2020 (0 comments)

HPE SSD flaw will brick hardware after 40k hours - https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=22697758 - March 2020 (0 comments)

Some HP Enterprise SSD will brick after 40000 hours without update - https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=22697001 - March 2020 (1 comment)

HPE Warns of New Firmware Flaw That Bricks SSDs After 40k Hours of Use - https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=22692611 - March 2020 (0 comments)

HPE Warns of New Bug That Kills SSD Drives After 40k Hours - https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=22680420 - March 2020 (0 comments)

(there's also https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=32035934, but that was submitted today)

這次 downtime 看起來很像是中了 SSD firmware bug,目前看起來先搬到 EC2 上面了:

$ host news.ycombinator.com
news.ycombinator.com has address 50.112.136.166
$ host 50.112.136.166      
166.136.112.50.in-addr.arpa domain name pointer ec2-50-112-136-166.us-west-2.compute.amazonaws.com.

看討論串應該是暫時性的?

Amazon EC2 有 Mac (M1) 機種可以租用了

2020 年年底的時候 AWS 推出用 Mac mini 配合搭建出 Mac (Intel) 機種:「Amazon EC2 推出 Mac Instance」,當初有計畫在 2021 年推出 M1 的版本:

Apple M1 Chip – EC2 Mac instances with the Apple M1 chip are already in the works, and planned for 2021.

不過就沒什麼意外的 delay 了,這次則是推出了 M1 的版本:「New – Amazon EC2 M1 Mac Instances」。

依照說明看起來還是 Mac mini,掛上 AWS Nitro System

EC2 Mac instances are dedicated Mac mini computers attached through Thunderbolt to the AWS Nitro System, which lets the Mac mini appear and behave like another EC2 instance.

然後跟 Intel 版本一樣,因為是掛進 Dedicated Hosts 的計價方式,雖然是以秒計費,但還是設定最低 24 小時的租用時間限制:

Amazon EC2 Mac instances are available as Dedicated Hosts through both On Demand and Savings Plans pricing models. The Dedicated Host is the unit of billing for EC2 Mac instances. Billing is per second, with a 24-hour minimum allocation period for the Dedicated Host to comply with the Apple macOS Software License Agreement. At the end of the 24-hour minimum allocation period, the host can be released at any time with no further commitment.

Intel 版本代號是 mac1,只有一種機種 mac1.metal,M1 版本代號是 mac2,也只有一種機種 mac2.metal

以最經典的美東一區 us-east-1 來看,mac1.metal 的 on-demand 價錢是 US$1.083/hour,mac2.metal 則是 US$0.65/hour,差不多是 60% 的價錢,便宜不少,大概是反應在硬體攤提與電費成本上了。

另外目前大家用 M1 的經驗來看,Rostta 2 未必會比原生的機器慢多少,雖然 mac1.metal 是 12 cores,mac2.metal 是 8 core,但以雲上面一定要用 Mac 跑的應用來說,馬上想的到的還是綁在 Apple 環境裡 CI 類的應用?

目前看起來主要的問題還是 24 小時的最小計費單位讓彈性低不少...

Amazon EC2 支援 NitroTPM 與 UEFI Secure Boot

也是在清 RSS reader 的時候翻到的公告,在兩個禮拜前 AWS 宣佈 Amazon EC2 支援 NitroTPMUEFI Secure Boot:「Amazon EC2 Now Supports NitroTPM and UEFI Secure Boot」。

NitroTPM 相容於 TPM 2.0 的界面,所以有支援 TPM 2.0 的軟體都可以利用 (像是 Windows 11):

Nitro Trusted Platform Module (NitroTPM) is a virtual device that is provided by the AWS Nitro System and conforms to the TPM 2.0 specification.

之前在研究 LUKS 的時候也有看到 TPM 相關的資料:

Linux Unified Key Setup (LUKS) or dm-verity on Linux are examples of OS-level applications that can leverage NitroTPM too.

然後支援的平台有些限制,只有 IntelAMD 的平台有支援,而且還要扣掉 Xen、Mac 以及 bare metal 的機種:

At the moment, we support all Intel and AMD instance types that supports UEFI boot mode. Graviton1, Graviton2, Xen-based, Mac, and bare-metal instances are not supported.

ARM 那邊有自己的一套,不太玩 TPM 大概可以理解,Xen 大概是不想支援 (停止開發新功能之類的原因),Mac 可能是 Apple 的硬體限制,最後的 bare metal 是因為沒辦法虛擬化?

然後這個功能不另外收費,看起來幾乎是全球性一次更新:

There is no additional cost for using NitroTPM. It is available today in all AWS Regions, including the AWS GovCloud (US) Regions, except in China.

AWS 推出 c7g 機種

AWSAmazon EC2 產品線上推出了新一代的 ARM 產品,AWS Graviton3 架構,c7g 系列機種:「New – Amazon EC2 C7g Instances, Powered by AWS Graviton3 Processors」。

Graviton3 宣稱比 Graviton2 多 25% 的一般性效能,以及多了一倍的浮點效能,還有 DDR5 的頻寬優勢:

Our next generation, Graviton3 processors, deliver up to 25 percent higher performance, up to 2x higher floating-point performance, and 50 percent faster memory access based on leading-edge DDR5 memory technology compared with Graviton2 processors.

在「FreeBSD on the Graviton 3」這邊也可以看到一些效能數據 (雖然是跑在 FreeBSD 上),可以看到基本上符合 AWS 的宣稱。

目前只有 us-east-1us-west-2 有這個機種,不過 Graviton 系列一直都是 AWS 的強主打項目,其他區域應該很快就會看到:

C7g instances are initially available in US East (N. Virginia) and US West (Oregon) AWS Regions; other Regions will be added shortly after launch.

價位上比 c6g 貴了一些,在 us-east-1c7g.16xlarge (64 vCPU + 128 GB RAM) 是 US$2.32/hour,而 c6g.16xlarge 是 US$2.176/hour,大約貴了 6.6%,但如果是 CPU bounded 的應用來說,應該還是蠻划算的。

另外一方面是等後續的 m7gr7g 系列出現...

FreeBSD 的 Amazon EC2 Image 打算自動使用本機空間當作 Swap

Twitter 上看到 Colin Percival 說計畫將 FreeBSD EC2 image (AMI) 自動偵測並使用 ephemeral disk 的空間當作 swap:

就算是使用 EBSgp2 或是 gp3,甚至是其他 VPS,我也很習慣開一點點的 swap 空間來用 (通常是用 file swap 的方式開 512MB,無論記憶體有多大),這算是我自己的 best practice 了,這可以把一些完全沒用到的 daemon 塞進 swap。

不過對於已經把 ephemeral disk 規劃拿來用的人可能會不太開心,需要去改設定...