Twitch 宣佈退出韓國市場

Twitch 宣佈 2024/02/27 (星期二) 退出韓國市場:「An Update on Twitch in Korea」。日期不知道是怎麼選的,可能跟某些合約有關?

Twitch 目前的公告會有繁體中文,也可以看這份:「Twitch 韓國現況更新」。

另外今天早上找了一下,Hacker News 也有討論了:「An update on Twitch in Korea (twitch.tv)」。

目前官方給出來的理由是虧本,而且找不到方法克服虧本的問題:

Ultimately, the cost to operate Twitch in Korea is prohibitively expensive and we have spent significant effort working to reduce these costs so that we could find a way for the Twitch business to remain in Korea.

這邊提到的包括了 p2p model 以及降到 720p,但即使如此網路費用 (應該就是頻寬費用) 是其他區域的十倍以上:

First, we experimented with a peer-to-peer model for source quality. Then, we adjusted source quality to a maximum of 720p. While we have lowered costs from these efforts, our network fees in Korea are still 10 times more expensive than in most other countries. Twitch has been operating in Korea at a significant loss, and unfortunately there is no pathway forward for our business to run more sustainably in that country.

Cloudflare 這邊,2016 年還叫做 CloudFlare 的時候也有抱怨過:「CloudFlare 對 HiNet 成本的抱怨 (還有其他 ISP...)」。

當年是這樣寫 HiNetKT,成本大約是歐美區的 15 倍:

Two Asian locations stand out as being especially expensive: Seoul and Taipei. In these markets, with powerful incumbents (Korea Telecom and HiNet), transit costs 15x as much as in Europe or North America, or 150 units.

而尤其是韓國的部分,政府介入讓降價的速度比全世界慢,所以時間拉長後成本相較於其他地區就貴很多:

South Korea is perhaps the only country in the world where bandwidth costs are going up. This may be driven by new regulations from the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning, which mandate the commercial terms of domestic interconnection, based on predetermined “Tiers” of participating networks. This is contrary to the model in most parts of the world, where networks self-regulate, and often peer without settlement. The government even prescribes the rate at which prices should decrease per year (-7.5%), which is significantly slower than the annual drop in unit bandwidth costs elsewhere in the world. We are only able to peer 2% of our traffic in South Korea.

不過不確定現在的情況,2016 年的 CloudFlare 跟 2023 年的 Cloudflare 已經差了七年了...

AWS 推出 Amazon S3 Express One Zone

AWS 推出了以效能為導向的 Amazon S3 Express One Zone:「Announcing the new Amazon S3 Express One Zone high performance storage class」。

從名字裡的 One Zone 可以看到這是只有在一個 AZ,主打超低 latency:

The new Amazon S3 Express One Zone storage class is designed to deliver up to 10x better performance than the S3 Standard storage class while handling hundreds of thousands of requests per second with consistent single-digit millisecond latency, making it a great fit for your most frequently accessed data and your most demanding applications.

但費用相當貴,以 us-east-1 來看的話是 $0.16/GB/mo,如果拿其他一些 storage 方案來比,可以看到非常大的差距:

  • S3 Standard:$0.023/GB/mo
  • General Purpose SSD (gp3):$0.08/GB/mo
  • General Purpose SSD (gp2):$0.1/GB/mo

可以猜測後面應該全是 NVM 之類的 storage (不過文章裡沒有提到)。

這次的 Amazon S3 Express One Zone 也多出了很多特別的限制。

首先是新的 bucket type,在這個 bucket type 下面 ListObjectsV2 呼叫就必須以 / 結尾 (這暗示後面的資料處理有對這點 optimization),另外傳回的資料不保證順序了:

The path delimiter must be “/“, and any prefixes that you supply to ListObjectsV2 must end with a delimiter. Also, list operations return results without first sorting them, so you cannot do a “start after” retrieval.

另外看起來是在 AZ 裡面直接認證,所以有新的 authentication model:

The new CreateSession function returns a session token that grants access to a specific bucket for five minutes.

然後 bucket naming 因為有後處理,在命名上不需要在整個 AWS 是唯一的 (因為被加料了):

Directory bucket names must be unique within their AWS Region, and must specify an Availability Zone ID in a specially formed suffix. If my base bucket name is jbarr and it exists in Availability Zone use1-az5 (Availability Zone 5 in the US East (N. Virginia) Region) the name that I supply to CreateBucket would be jbarr--use1-az5--x-s3.

另外資料還是可以在同一個 region 下跨 AZ 存取,而且同一個 region 下面的 compute resources (像是 EC2) 不收傳輸費用:

Although the bucket exists within a specific Availability Zone, it is accessible from the other zones in the region, and there are no data transfer charges for requests from compute resources in one Availability Zone to directory buckets in another one in the same region.

費用的部分還有個比較特別的但書,超過 512KB 的 request 會需要額外收費:

You pay an additional per-GB fee for the portion of any request that exceeds 512 KB. For more information, see the Amazon S3 Pricing page.

主要是給自己開發的應用程式用的,現有的 framework 大多都有利用 batch & buffering 的技巧降低 latency 所帶來的效能影響。

平常應該是用不太到,但就有個印象,真的在架構設計上跑不掉的時候有個選擇...

Amazon EFS 漲價,再推出給更「冷」的資料儲存的空間:Amazon EFS Archive

Amazon EFS 這次推出的是再多推出一個 storage class:「Optimize your storage costs for rarely-accessed files with Amazon EFS Archive」。

先前應該是 2019 的時候推出了 IA:「Amazon EFS 的 IA Storage Class」,現在的 Archive 就是新的 storage class,儲存成本更便宜,但取用成本更高。

us-east-1 的價錢來看,可以到 Archive 的成本是 IA 的一半:

Standard (GB-Month)	$0.30
Infrequent Access (GB-Month)	$0.016
Archive (GB-Month)	$0.008
Backup - Warm / Cold (GB-Month)	$0.05 / $0.01

讀取成本則是 IA 的三倍:(這邊的 Tiering 指的是自動化的搬遷的服務)

All storage classes - Reads (per GB transferred)	$0.03
All storage classes - Writes (per GB transferred)	$0.06
Infrequent Access - Reads (incremental charge per GB transferred)	$0.01
Infrequent Access - Tiering (per GB transferred)*	$0.01
Archive - Reads (incremental charge per GB transferred)	$0.03
Archive - Tiering (per GB transferred)*	$0.03

基本上就是 Amazon S3 那套分級方法陸陸續續搬過來的感覺。

然後注意到這個「Regional (Multi-AZ) with Elastic Throughput」是新的計價方案,就算是 Standard storage class,I/O 是要算錢的。

在舊的方案「Regional (Multi-AZ) with legacy throughput modes」裡面,Standard 的 I/O 是不用額外付費,已經包在裡面,除非你直接購買 Provisioned (保證速度):

Standard (GB-Month)	$0.30
Infrequent Acces (GB-Month)	$0.025
Backup - Warm / Cold (GB-Month)	$0.05 / $0.01
Provisioned Throughput (MB/s-Month)	$6.00
Infrequent Access - Reads (per GB transferred)	$0.01
Infrequent Access - Tiering (per GB transferred)*	$0.01

翻了一下 Internet Archive 可以確認前幾天 2023/11/26 的 pricing 頁面還是舊的,也就是說這是這次推出來的改變:「Amazon EFS Pricing」。

看了一下目前 blog 上最近掛 Amazon EFS 類別的三篇都沒提到這件事情 (「New – Announcing Amazon EFS Elastic Throughput」、「Optimize your storage costs for rarely-accessed files with Amazon EFS Archive」以及「Replication failback and increased IOPS are new for Amazon EFS」),要用的人自己注意一下?

Spotify 在 Google Play 上面不需要付 15% 的過路費

Google 的大頭在與 Epic 的訴訟案中被要求揭露了實際的數據:「A secret Google deal let Spotify completely bypass Android’s app store fees」。

如果是透過 Spotify 自家的金流平台,就完全不用付錢給 Google,如果是透過 Google 的平台則是 4%,遠低於一般上架商家的 15% (超過 $1M/y 的部分則會到 30%):

On the stand, Google head of global partnerships Don Harrison confirmed Spotify paid a 0 percent commission when users chose to buy subscriptions through Spotify’s own system. If the users picked Google as their payment processor, Spotify handed over 4 percent — dramatically less than Google’s more common 15 percent fee.

來看後續法院以及歐盟會怎麼出手?這應該會是蠻重要的證據資料...

Signal 的簡訊花費在 $6m/year

Signal 的「Privacy is Priceless, but Signal is Expensive」這篇 PR 稿裡面提到了各項支出,Hacker News 上的討論在「Privacy is priceless, but Signal is expensive (signal.org)」這邊可以翻到。

裡面可以看到目前的數字 (以 2023 年十一月推算):

Storage: $1.3 million dollars per year.
Servers: $2.9 million dollars per year.
Registration Fees: $6 million dollars per year.
Total Bandwidth: $2.8 million dollars per year.
Additional Services: $700,000 dollars per year.

Current Infrastructure Costs (as of November 2023): Approximately $14 million dollars per year.

我比較感興趣的有幾塊,一個是標題提到的簡訊,在「Registration Fees」這個段落的說明裡可以看到列了兩個項目,一個是下載 Signal 的費用,另外一個是簡訊 SMS 認證的費用:

Signal incurs expenses when people download Signal and sign up for an account, or when they re-register on a new device. We use third-party services to send a registration code via SMS or voice call in order to verify that the person in possession of a given phone number actually intended to sign up for a Signal account.

這邊有些要確認的,下載軟體的頻寬應該是包括在 Total Bandwidth... 而且推敲起來,金額應該不算大:

  • 手機上的應用應該是由 AppleApp StoreGooglePlay 平台提供,不需要 Signal 提供頻寬下載。
  • 桌面應用端的部分,無論是 Windows、Mac 還是 Linux 的平台,看起來是透過 updates.signal.org 下載,這個名稱目前是指到 Cloudflare 上面,透過 traceroute 看起來不是 premium account (HiNet 用戶是導去美西的 SFO 機房),也許是 Cloudflare 的贊助帳號?

所以我會先假設這邊 $6m/year 的費用應該都是 SMS,在後面這段看起來也有提出來:

The cost of these registration services for verifying phone numbers when people first install Signal, or when they re-register on a new device, currently averages around $6 million dollars per year.

另外會這麼高也是因為現在 SMS pumping 很流行,也就是攻擊者與電信商合作 (或是同一組人),透過假造大量的認證需求,讓 app 後面的公司需要付大量的簡訊費用:

另外一個感興趣的是頻寬的部分,裡面有提到有一個比較吃頻寬的項目,是處理不在通訊錄上面的通話或是視訊。這邊 Signal 為了避免 IP address 的洩漏,會避免直接讓兩邊接通,而是透過 relay 接通:

To take one example, Signal always routes end-to-end encrypted calls from people who aren’t in your contacts through a relay server that obscures IP address information.

光這部份大約是 20PB/year 的量,費用約 $1.7m/year (上面有提到整個頻寬費用約 $2.8m/year):

At current traffic levels, the amount of outbound bandwidth that is required to support Signal voice and video calls is around 20 petabytes per year (that’s 20 million gigabytes) which costs around $1.7 million dollars per year in bandwidth fees just for calling[.]

而最大的費用還是各種人事支出的部分 (i.e. 經濟規模還沒有大到反過來),佔 $19m/year:

In total, around 50 full-time employees currently work on Signal[.]

To sustain our ongoing development efforts, about half of Signal’s overall operating budget goes towards recruiting, compensating, and retaining the people who build and care for Signal. When benefits, HR services, taxes, recruiting, and salaries are included, this translates to around $19 million dollars per year.

在 Hacker News 上有人貼了「Signal Technology Foundation - Nonprofit Explorer - ProPublica」這個,這邊有申報資料可以翻,比 PR 稿上面細。

OpenAI 的 API 又降價了...

這次 OpenAI 的 API 又降價了,這次是倍數等級的降:「New models and developer products announced at DevDay」。

GPT-4 Turbo 的部分直接是拉高 context 以及降低價錢,從本來的 8K/32K context,直接拉高到單一 128K context 產品,而且價錢直接砍了 3/4 左右:

GPT-4 8K
Input: $0.03
Output: $0.06

GPT-4 32K
Input: $0.06
Output: $0.12

GPT-4 Turbo 128K
Input: $0.01
Output: $0.03

GPT-3.5 Turbo 則是直耶拿掉 4K context 產品,然後把價錢砍了一半:

GPT-3.5 Turbo 4K
Input: $0.0015
Output: $0.002

GPT-3.5 Turbo 16K
Input: $0.003
Output: $0.004

GPT-3.5 Turbo 16K
Input: $0.001
Output: $0.002

GPT-3.5 Turbo fine-tuning 的服務則是從本來 4K context 產品線,多了一條 16K context 的產品線,價錢也是砍了一半以上:

GPT-3.5 Turbo 4K fine-tuning
Training: $0.008
Input: $0.012
Output: $0.016

GPT-3.5 Turbo 4K and 16K fine-tuning
Training: $0.008
Input: $0.003
Output: $0.006

另外也多了一些非文字類的功能,包括了影像與聲音的內容。

記得之前有想過的一些點子,當時粗算了一下覺得太貴,好像可以重算看看...

X (Twitter) 的工程團隊列出了最近做的事情

Hacker News 上看到的討論,在 Elon Musk 接手後的 X (Twitter),工程團隊做了什麼事情:「X Engineering Year Retrospective (twitter.com/xeng)」,原推在:

其中裡面有些蠻有趣的,出現了一些平常不太會出現的數字資訊。

我比較有興趣的關掉了加州 Sacramento DC 的這個部分,而光是這個 DC 就有 148k 台 server (是 server,不是 VM 或是 container),而且也提到電力少了 48MW,看起來是把這些 server 廢掉,而不是轉到其他機房?

- Shutdown the Sacramento data center and re-provisioned the 5,200 racks and 148,000 servers, which generated more than $100M in annual savings. In total, we freed up 48 MW of capacity and tore down 60k lbs. of network ladder rack before re-provisioning it to other data centers.

話說一個 Twitter 機房用 48MW... 查了一下台電網站,核三的一個機組的供電量也才 951MW:

而且 Twitter 服務要用到 148k server,hmmm...

GCP 的 IPv4 也要漲價了

前幾天收到 GCP 的信件,提到 2024/02/01 開始 IPv4 address 要漲價了,在「External IP address pricing」這邊也可以翻到這些資訊。

External IP 的部分,漲 25%:

Static and ephemeral IP addresses in use on standard VM instances will go from $.004 to $.005.

Static and ephemeral IP addresses in use on preemptible VM instances will go from $.002 to $.0025.

用一個月 720 小時算,一般 VM 的費用等於是從 $2.88/mo 漲到 $3.6/mo 左右的費用。

Cloud NAT 吃的 IPv4 address 的部分,從本來沒有收變成要收費:

Static and ephemeral IP addresses mapped to Cloud NAT Gateway will go from No Charge to $0.005.

Cloudflare Workers 推出新的計費模式:以 CPU time 收費

CloudflareWorkers 這個產品 (serverless 產品線) 推出了以 CPU time 收費的模式:「New Workers pricing — never pay to wait on I/O again」。

在這之前大家都是以 wall time 在計費,但這對於會卡在 I/O 很久的應用來說很不利,這次 Cloudflare 提出方案改用 CPU time 來計費,的確有吸引到我的目光...

這是舊的:

這是新的:

就這兩張比較起來有個不是很確定的部分,現在不看 memory 用量收費了?Pricing 這頁裡面的資量已經把 「Standard」更新上去了,但好像還是沒提到 memory?

不過不是馬上生效,而是這個月的月底 2023/10/31 可以選擇切到新的方案:

Starting October 31, 2023, you will have the option to opt in individual Workers and Pages Functions projects on your account to new pricing, and newly created projects will default to new pricing. You’ll be able to estimate how much new pricing will cost in the Cloudflare dashboard. For the majority of current applications, new pricing is the same or less expensive than the previous Bundled and Unbound pricing plans.

另外明年 2024/03/01 會全部強制切到新的方案:

If you’re on our Workers Paid plan, you will have until March 1, 2024 to switch to the new pricing on your own, after which all of your projects will be automatically migrated to new pricing. If you’re an Enterprise customer, any contract renewals after March 1, 2024, will use the new pricing.

用 CPU time 的確是好不少,但不知道這個 billing 的方式沒有其他地雷...

Kagi 又恢復 $10/mo 的 Unlimited Search Plan 了

Kagi 公告 $10/mo 的 Unlimited Search Plan:「Unlimited Kagi searches for $10 per month」。

今天公告以後可以看到有個比較抖一點的成長,但要再觀察看看是不是持續的:

翻了一下文章,還是沒看到為什麼要這樣做,尤其是財務上的理由... 最早從 $10/mo 漲到 $25/mo 就是成本問題,我的猜測是現在有量了所以 discount 比較好談 (從 9/6 的「Kagi Search Stats」的 8034 與現在的相比,的確可以看到一直在成長),然後談完 discount 後重算成本結構,發現有機會衝一波?

也有可能是 VC 那邊有進展?像是找到比較願意放手讓 Kagi 執行這樣的理念的 VC?

Anyway,$10/mo 又回來了...