Firefox 引入 BigInt,Safari 也在實作...

Firefox 實作了 BigInt (進度可以在「Implementation of BigInt values for SpiderMonkey」這邊看到):「bigint shipping in firefox!」,現在可以在 68 beta 版裡使用:

I am delighted to share with folks the results of a project I have been helping out on for the last few months: implementation of "BigInt" in Firefox, which is finally shipping in Firefox 68 (beta).

另外文中也提到了其他瀏覽器的情況 (再 Can I Use 也可以看到「BigInt」目前的支援情況),用 V8 engine 的都已經支援 (包括 Chrome 與新版的 Edge),而 Safari 也在實作中:

BigInt is also shipping already in V8 and Chrome, and my colleague Caio Lima has an project in progress to implement it in JavaScriptCore / WebKit / Safari. Depending on your target audience, BigInt might be deployable already!

另外一個有趣的事情是 license,其中馬上可以想到的是 GMP,裡面牽扯到 LGPLv3GPLv2 的授權問題:

Since version 6, GMP is distributed under the dual licenses, GNU LGPL v3 and GNU GPL v2. These licenses make the library free to use, share, and improve, and allow you to pass on the result. The GNU licenses give freedoms, but also set firm restrictions on the use with non-free programs.

從說明有提到一些目標,短期可能會用 GMP 以儘快時做出合理的效能版本,長期則是希望用自己的版本:

An important design question is whether to implement the arithmetic operators as native or self-hosted intrinsics, probably using an external library such as GMP in the former case. Using an existing library has the advantage of providing good performance for less initial effort, but a self-hosted library also has advantages, such as greater flexibility in representation, better compiler integration, and simpler integration with the rest of the JS runtime (GC, etc.).

2018 年一月的討論有提到有一包 patch 是使用 GMP 的版本,這樣看起來應該是有解決 license 上的問題...

The current version of the patch uses libgmp for BigInt arithmetic, supports most features from the current proposal, and passes all up-to-date test262 tests for BigInt. Direct compiler support for BigInt has been removed; instead, compilation should fail if a possible BigInt value is encountered.

後續的描述裡面也都有提到 GMP 相關的事情,應該是沒錯...

Facebook 在 MySQL 裡存時間的型態

MySQL at Facebook這邊說明提到了,Facebook 內部是使用 INT UNSIGNED 儲存時間:

Which gets us to the point that it is no different than storing INT (hello 2038?) or UNSIGNED INT (a bit later) or BIGINT (till the end of time) and possibly passing binary values in efficient protocols eventually.

If you got that far of this post, your likes in Facebook graph are stored with 'INT UNSIGNED' time field.

順道一提,INT 是 2038 年問題,INT UNSIGNED 是 2106 年問題。

而 Facebook 在 MySQL 上會選擇不使用 DATETIMETIMESTAMP 的原因其實跟技術搭不上太多關係,主因是因為 MySQL 根本沒打算修 XDDD

It is my favorite MySQL bug, simply because it forces any reasonable mind not to use TIMESTAMP, and MySQL is never going to fix it (nor will ever understand time). I lost my temper a bit on that bug: https://bugs.mysql.com/bug.php?id=38455

我的猜測是已經爛成一團了,而且大家都有 workaround (呃,其實就是 Facebook 推薦用 INT UNSIGNED 的方法),再考慮到有一票現有程式,在上面狂用 side effect 讓執行結果正確,不如就不要修這種吃力不討好的東西了 XDDD

另外一方面 timezone 資訊其實常常變化,常常需要更新 MySQL 的 timezone database (而這對於維運來說不是什麼開心的事情):

There're few ways around that. One of them is side-load and maintain timezone data inside MySQL itself - it has support for internal timezone database and tracks obscure time shifts like ones for "Pacific War Time" and "Pacific Peace Time". That is operationally feasible (you have to remind yourself to update the database whenever time rules change, and they do change a lot, if you consider every timezone in the world), but has limited value.

這就是為什麼大家遇到 MySQL 時都會推薦用 INT UNSIGNED 了...

另外可以參考三年前的文章「MySQL 裡儲存時間的方式...」,裡面引用了 Baron Schwartz 的說明:

All date and time columns shall be INT UNSIGNED NOT NULL, and shall store a Unix timestamp in UTC.

其實這已經是個 best practice 了...

MySQL 裡搜尋 CHAR/VARCHAR (String) 欄位時要注意的事情

MySQL 表格欄位是 CHAR 或 VARCHAR 時,寫搜尋條件要記得使用 string 格式,而非數字。意思是,要避免這種 SQL query:

SELECT * FROM foo WHERE `column_string` = 123456;

原因是即使 column_string 加上了 B-tree index,也無法利用這個 index 加速查詢。

原因是,除了最明確的 '123456' 會符合外,還有很多種 case 符合:

mysql> SELECT 123456 = '0123456';
+--------------------+
| 123456 = '0123456' |
+--------------------+
|                  1 |
+--------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> SELECT 123456 = ' 123456';
+--------------------+
| 123456 = ' 123456' |
+--------------------+
|                  1 |
+--------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

這使得 index 無用武之地。

但如果欄位本身是數字 (INT/BIGINT),搜尋時用字串反而沒關係:MySQL 會先把字串轉型為數字再比較,所以會用到 index。

總而言之:

  • 可以用 INT/BIGINT 時,不要用 CHAR/VARCHAR 儲存。
  • 使用 CHAR/VARCHAR 的欄位當搜尋條件時,要用字串形式當作搜尋條件。(除非你很清楚你在做什麼)

今天上場當救援投手時解掉的問題...