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Cloudflare Worker 進入 Open Beta 讓大家玩了...

去年 Cloudflare 宣佈了 Cloudflare Worker,讓使用者可以在 Edge 端跑 JavaScript (參考「Cloudflare 也能在各端點跑 JavaScript 了」),也就是可以在 Cloudflare 節點上面對 HTTP request 與 HTTP response 做更多事情,類似於 AWSLambda@Edge

不過去年公佈的當時需要申請才有機會用,算是 Private Beta。現在則是開放讓大家玩 (Open Beta) 讓大家幫忙測試了:「Cloudflare Workers is now on Open Beta」。

文件在「Cloudflare Workers Docs」這邊可以取得,就如同去年 Cloudflare 所提到的,程式的撰寫上是透過 Service Worker 的界面,這樣就不用再學一套:

Cloudflare Workers are modeled on the Service Workers available in modern web browsers, and use the same API whenever possible.

現階段 Cloudflare Worker 是免費的,看起來是用這段時間的用量與用法來看要怎麼設計收費機制:

Cloudflare Workers is completely free during the open beta. We do intend on charging for Workers, but we will notify you of our plans at least thirty days before any changes are made.

Cloudflare 推出的 Wrap 讓你不用在本地端開對外的 Port 80/443

Cloudflare 推出了 Wrap 服務:「Want to try Warp? We just enabled the beta for you」。

本地端的 web server 可以只開 127.0.0.1:{80,443},然後 Wrap 的程式會連到 Cloudflare 上面接 web request 回來打到你本地端的電腦上,官方舉的例子用 port 8080:

$ cloudflare-warp --hostname warp.example.com http://localhost:8080

然後也支援多台機器接同一個 hostname (load balancing,順便做 high availability):

$ cloudflare-warp --hostname warp.example.com --lb-pool origin-pool-1 http://localhost:8080

對於安全架構多了一些選擇可以用...

Cloudflare 也能在各端點跑 JavaScript 了

類似於 AWS 先前推出的 Using CloudFront with Lambda@Edge (參考「在 CloudFront 的 edge 上跑 Lambda」以及「Lambda@Edge 的 GA」),Cloudflare 也推出了類似的功能:「Introducing Cloudflare Workers: Run Javascript Service Workers at the Edge」、「Code Everywhere: Why We Built Cloudflare Workers」。

整個系統是架構在 Chrome V8 上,尤其是安全性的部分是 Cloudflare 的人頗讚賞的重點:

Security: The V8 JavaScript engine is arguably the most scrutinized code sandbox in the history of computing, and the Chrome security team is one of the best in the world. Moreover, Google pays massive bug bounties to anyone who can find a vulnerability. (That said, we have added additional layers of our own sandboxing on top of V8.)

比較不一樣的地方在於 Cloudflare 拿 Service Worker API 來設計他們的架構,AWS 則是自己幹了一套出來...

然後現在還沒給出價錢,也還沒完全開放使用... 想要玩的人需要申請 beta。

Google Chrome 對 Symantec 全系列憑證的不信任計畫

Google Chrome 前陣子整理了一份對 Symantec 憑證的不信任計畫:「Chrome’s Plan to Distrust Symantec Certificates」。

這包括了一卡車的品牌,像是 ThawteVeriSignGeoTrustRapidSSL,不過 Equifax 跟 Symantec 的關係我沒查到...:

Symantec’s PKI business, which operates a series of Certificate Authorities under various brand names, including Thawte, VeriSign, Equifax, GeoTrust, and RapidSSL, had issued numerous certificates that did not comply with the industry-developed CA/Browser Forum Baseline Requirements.

反正整個計畫會在 Google Chrome 70 推出時告一段落 (變成完全不信任),會是 2018/09/13 (預定時間) 與 2018/10/23 (預定時間) 在 beta channel 與 stable channel 上推出。

中間比較重要的時間點是 2018/03/15 (預定時間) 與 2018/04/17 (預定時間),Google Chrome 66 在 beta channel 與 stable channel 上推出,這個版本不會信任 2016/06/01 前發出的憑證:

Chrome 66 released to beta, which will remove trust in Symantec-issued certificates with a not-before date prior to June 1, 2016. As of this date Site Operators must be using either a Symantec-issued TLS server certificate issued on or after June 1, 2016 or a currently valid certificate issued from any other trusted CA as of Chrome 66.
Site Operators that obtained a certificate from Symantec’s old infrastructure after June 1, 2016 are unaffected by Chrome 66 but will need to obtain a new certificate by the Chrome 70 dates described below.

整個計畫的時間軸清楚多了...

Google Cloud Platform 也開始玩 Reserved Instances 的想法了 (Committed use discounts)

看到 Google Cloud PlatformGoogle Cloud Engine 也開始提供 RI 的想法了:「Committed use discounts」。

本來就有 Sustained use discounts,當你用到一定的量時就會自動折扣,不需要人工介入,不過對於 7x24 開機的 instance 來說,能得到的折扣還是比不上 AWS 的 RI。

這次 Committed use discounts 折扣的方式跟 Amazon EC2 類似,一樣是一年與三年。計價方式不同的原因是因為 GCE 提供 custom type,使用者可以自己選 vCPU 與 Memory,所以折扣的方式也是圍繞在這兩個選擇上規劃。

不過小台機器是不提供折扣的,這點就不像 AWS 上所有種類的機器都可以買 RI:

You can only use committed use discounts for predefined machine types and custom machine types. Small machine types, such as f1-micro and g1-small, are not eligible for committed use discounts.

目前是 beta:

This is a Beta release of Committed Use Discounts. This feature is not covered by any SLA or deprecation policy and may be subject to backward-incompatible changes.

Google CDN 進入 Beta

最近 CDN 產業裡有不少蕭期,其中一個新聞是 Google CDN 進入 beta,Google 藉由在全球佈署的機房來服務。

不過雖然進入了 Beta,但仍然有很嚴重的技術限制,只能透過 GCE 當 origin server,這使得實用性低很多:

Origins
Delivers HTTP/HTTPS content originating from Compute Engine VM instances. External origin servers are not supported.

有些特點是跟一般 CDN 不同的,一個是 Google 對 HTTPS 的口號,所以 HTTP 與 HTTPS 的價錢相同。其實你就當做他把 HTTP 的費用收的跟 HTTPS 一樣就好:

SSL Shouldn't Cost Extra
The web is moving to HTTPS, and your cacheable content should, too. With Cloud CDN, you can secure your content using SSL/TLS for no additional charge.

另外一個特點是從技術上就宣稱完全使用 Anycast,而不是見到的 DNS + Anycast:

Anycast
Serve all your content from a single IP address with low latency worldwide.

另外,計價的方式與其他的 CDN 有不少地方不一樣,另外也有針對中國地區另外處理。

首先是他把 Cache Egress (從 CDN 給使用者) 與 Cache Fill (從 CDN 到 Origin 取得資源) 分開收,一的般 CDN 都只收 Cache Egress 這塊。

再來是中國大陸地區的價錢另外標示,有特地標明不是從中國大陸地區直接提供服務:

Traffic destined for mainland China is served from Google locations outside of mainland China. Performance and reliability may be lower than for traffic served from in-country locations.

言下之意就是另外買 optimized 的頻寬來服務,但還是不會像在中國大陸地區有機房的效果這麼好,不過好處是不需要 ICP 之類的證照。

不過不得不說價錢其實還蠻便宜的,無論是歐美還是亞洲區。

Let's Encrypt 宣佈脫離 Beta

Let's Encrypt 宣佈脫離 beta,正式開放:「Leaving Beta, New Sponsors」。

翻資料的時候發現在今年 3/26 的時候,限制已經放寬了:「Rate Limits for Let’s Encrypt」。

首先一張證書只能包括 100 個 hostname,跟原來相同:

Names/Certificate is the limit on how many domain names you can include in a single certificate. This is currently limited to 100 names, or websites, per certificate issued.

再來是每個禮拜可以申請的數量從 5 個 hostname 變成 20 個,另外本來 renew 也算 quota,現在變成不會吃到 quota:

Certificates/Domain limits how many certificates can be issued that contain a single registered domain*.
This is limited to 20 certificates per domain per week. Exception: When you request a certificate with the same exact set of FQDNs as previously-issued certificate, this rate limit does not apply, but the one below does.

不知道會不會再放寬限制...

Docker 在 Mac 與 Windows 上使用 xhyve 與 Hyper-V

DockerMac OS XWindows 上開始支援其他的 VM Host 了:「Docker for Mac and Windows Beta: the simplest way to use Docker on your laptop」。

之前在 Mac OS X 與 Windows 上必須使用 VirtualBox 跑一個 Linux Host 起來,而現在可以用 xhyveHyper-V,另外剛剛發現 Linux 的部份也換到 Alpine Linux 上了 (不知道是不是這次才換的):

Faster and more reliable: no more VirtualBox! The Docker engine is running in an Alpine Linux distribution on top of an xhyve Virtual Machine on Mac OS X or on a Hyper-V VM on Windows, and that VM is managed by the Docker application. You don’t need docker-machine to run Docker for Mac and Windows.

Slack 開始測試語音通話功能

Slack 開始測語音通話功能了:「Making voice calls in Slack」,目前是 beta:

Keep in mind: Calls (beta) is currently voice only and desktop only. Video, screen sharing, and mobile support will come in the future.

包括了 one-to-one (開放給所有的 plan),以及 group (開放給付費 plan)。

在 troubleshooting 的說明裡有提到技術問題,也可以看出一些東西:

If Slack is having trouble establishing a call connection, check the following settings, or ask your IT admin to do so:

  • Set your network to allow outbound UDP connections to port 22466.
  • Make sure your network is allowing incoming traffic from UDP 22466.

功能愈來愈齊了...

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