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歐洲議會嘗試撥款支援 Open Source Software 的 Bug Bounty 計畫

Hacker News 上看到歐盟議會試著以 Bug Bounty 計畫支援 Open Source Software 的消息。這次看到的是 VLC:「VLC: Bug Bounty Program - Get Rewards through HackerOne」。

The European Parliament has approved budget to improve the EU’s IT infrastructure by extending the free software security audit programme (FOSSA) and by including a bug bounty approach in the programme.

這還蠻特別的... 由官方經費贊助 open source 的計畫,除了 VLC 外,重點會在成效以及後續還有哪些被贊助。

CloudFlare 也要提供 Certificate Transparency 的 Log 伺服器了...

看到 CloudFlare 請求加入 Chromium (Google Chrome) 的伺服器列表:「Certificate Transparency - Cloudflare "nimbus2017" Log Server Inclusion Request」。

對照之前的「Chromium 內提案移除 HPKP (HTTP Public Key Pinning)」以及「Let's Encrypt 的 Embed SCT 支援」,這樣看起來是瀏覽器內會有一份白名單,只有在這白名單上的 Embed SCT 才會被信任...

但弄到這樣的話,log server 是不是也要有稽核機制?

好像哪邊搞錯了方向啊...

AWS 的稽核報告服務:AWS Artifact

以往要取得 AWS 的稽核報告都必須簽署 NDA 並透過 support ticket 取得 (或是找窗口拿),現在 AWS 把這件事情做成一個服務:「Introducing AWS Artifact: Speeding Access to Compliance Reports」。

服務叫做 AWS Artifact,還是要簽保密協議,不過電子化了:

You can start downloading the audit reports in the AWS Management Console today. Many of the documents are confidential and require you to accept Amazon’s confidentiality terms and conditions, but after you review and agree to those terms, you will be granted instant access to review documents.

這樣取得資料就可以透過系統直接拉出來了:

To document the current and historical compliance of the AWS infrastructure and services, many AWS customers provide compliance reports—including those for ISO, SOC, and PCI—to their auditors or regulators.

Mozilla 移除 e-Guven CA Certificate

因為稽核過期失效,Mozilla 決定移除 e-Guven 的 Root CA:「Removing e-Guven CA Certificate」,對應的 Bugzilla 連結出自「Remove E-Guven root certificate from NSS」:

Issuer Field:
CN = e-Guven Kok Elektronik Sertifika Hizmet Saglayicisi
O = Elektronik Bilgi Guvenligi A.S.
C = TR

SHA-1 Fingerprint: DD:E1:D2:A9:01:80:2E:1D:87:5E:84:B3:80:7E:4B:B1:FD:99:41:34

Google Chrome 裡面也有引入這個 root CA,過幾天應該會被提出來處理:

AWS Config 多支援三區...

AWS Config 是個稽核類的產品,把所有的操作行為記錄下來,供事後查詢,一開始只有最早的 us-east-1 有,而剛剛公佈了多支援 us-west-2、eu-west-1、ap-southeast-2 這三區:

Today we are adding support for the US West (Oregon), Europe (Ireland), and Asia Pacific (Sydney) regions, with support for others also on the drawing board.

不知道為什麼是這三區先上...

Amazon 推出 AWS CloudTrail,可以稽核 API 使用量...

因為最近幾天是 re:Invent,所以 AWS 在這個期間會丟出很多新玩意。

這次推出的是 AWS CloudTrail,會將 API call 記錄起來存到 Amazon S3 或是透過 Amazon SNS 發出,於是你就可以利用這些資料分析出各種想要撈出的資訊:「AWS CloudTrail - Capture AWS API Activity」。

目前只支援北美的 US East (Northern Virginia) 以及 US West (Oregon),也就是 us-east-1 與 us-west-1。

建一個 Root CA 的開銷...

cryptography mailing list 上有人問了這個問題,結果 Entrust 的 CTO,Jon Callas 跑出來回答:「How much does it cost to start a root CA ?」。

答案是,第一次的費用大約 25 萬美金,其中人事費用佔很大一塊。另外每年還有固定的維護費用 (設備與稽核):所有的行為都必須被稽核,而且所有的的控管都必須是雙重認證,以確保一個人無法破壞 CA 的安全性。

還蠻有趣的回覆...

MySQL 的 audit log

在「Auditing login attempts in MySQL」這篇文章裡討論 MySQL 登入的 audit log,其中第一個方法是 full log (包含 SELECT 這類指令),看起來可以活用...

打開 General Query Log 後,幾乎所有的行為都會被記錄下來,照這個設計應該可以寫到 FIFO 裡丟到 log server 上?不知道會增加 log server 多少負荷...

GitHub 要求全面檢查 SSH Key

GitHub 被攻擊成功後 (參考 GitHub 官方所說的「Public Key Security Vulnerability and Mitigation」這篇),官方除了把漏洞修補完以外,接下來做了更積極的措施:暫停所有的 SSH key 存取權限,一律等到用戶 audit 確認過後才開放:「SSH Key Audit」。

這次 GitHub 除了修正問題、audit key 以外,另外還提出了新的機制讓用戶更容易發現異常存取行為,包括了:

  • 新增 SSH public key 時要輸入密碼。
  • 新增 SSH public key 成功後會寄信通知。
  • 新增「Security History」頁面可以看到帳戶的安全狀況。

算是很積極補救的作法。

另外說明,要如何 audit key,也就是要如何取得你的 public key fingerprint:

ssh-keygen -lf .ssh/id_rsa.pub (如果你是用 RSA)
或是
ssh-keygen -lf .ssh/id_dsa.pub (如果你是用 DSA)

出現的訊息就是你要比對的值。記住!既然是 audit,請一個一個比對確認 fingerprint 全部都正確。

附上原始信件:(好像還沒在 blog 上說明)

A security vulnerability was recently discovered that made it possible for an attacker to add new SSH keys to arbitrary GitHub user accounts. This would have provided an attacker with clone/pull access to repositories with read permissions, and clone/pull/push access to repositories with write permissions. As of 5:53 PM UTC on Sunday, March 4th the vulnerability no longer exists.

While no known malicious activity has been reported, we are taking additional precautions by forcing an audit of all existing SSH keys.

# Required Action

Since you have one or more SSH keys associated with your GitHub account you must visit https://github.com/settings/ssh/audit to approve each valid SSH key.

Until you have approved your SSH keys, you will be unable to clone/pull/push your repositories over SSH.

# Status

We take security seriously and recognize this never should have happened. In addition to a full code audit, we have taken the following measures to enhance the security of your account:

- We are forcing an audit of all existing SSH keys
- Adding a new SSH key will now prompt for your password
- We will now email you any time a new SSH key is added to your account
- You now have access to a log of account changes in your Account Settings page
Sincerely, The GitHub Team

--- https://github.com support@github.com

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