歐盟通過 Digital Markets Act 與 Digital Services Act

Hacker News Daily 上翻的時候看到的大消息,歐盟通過了 Digital Markets Act (DMA) 與 Digital Services Act (DSA):「EU Approves Landmark Legislation to Regulate Apple and Other Big Tech Firms」,這兩個法案會直接衝擊大企業壟斷的情況。

找了一下中文的資料,iThome 有報導:「歐洲議會通過《數位服務法》與《數位市場法》!傳訊服務必須互通,不得禁止使用者採用第三方App Store」。

其中 MacRumors 上的文章整理的蠻清楚的,DMA 包括了:

  • Allow users to install apps from third-party app stores and sideload directly from the internet.
  • Allow developers to offer third-party payment systems in apps and promote offers outside the gatekeeper's platforms.
  • Allow developers to integrate their apps and digital services directly with those belonging to a gatekeeper. This includes making messaging, voice-calling, and video-calling services interoperable with third-party services upon request.
  • Give developers access to any hardware feature, such as "near-field communication technology, secure elements and processors, authentication mechanisms, and the software used to control those technologies."
  • Ensure that all apps are uninstallable and give users the ability to unsubscribe from core platform services under similar conditions to subscription.
  • Give users the option to change the default voice assistant to a third-party option.
  • Share data and metrics with developers and competitors, including marketing and advertising performance data.
  • Set up an independent "compliance function" group to monitor its compliance with EU legislation with an independent senior manager and sufficient authority, resources, and access to management.
  • Inform the European Commission of their mergers and acquisitions.

可以看出來除了最後兩項是針對 EU 的監管機制外,其他的包括了安裝來自第三方的軟體、可以使用第三方的付款系統、可以整合系統服務、可以整合硬體功能、可以使用第三方的語音工具、可以反安裝所有的 app 以及提供平台蒐集到的資料給開發者,都是針對現在 AppleApp StoreGoogle Play 所限制的條件。

另外 DMA 也禁止了這些行為:

  • Pre-install certain software applications and require users to use any important default software services such as web browsers.
  • Require app developers to use certain services or frameworks, including browser engines, payment systems, and identity providers, to be listed in app stores.
  • Give their own products, apps, or services preferential treatment or rank them higher than those of others.
  • Reuse private data collected during a service for the purposes of another service.
  • Establish unfair conditions for business users.

而 DSA 的部份則是針對網路上的非法內容處理:

The Digital Services Act (DSA), which requires platforms to do more to police the internet for illegal content, has also been approved by the European Parliament.

其中 DMA 的生效日看起來會在 2023 年年中生效?應該是 六個月加上六個月...

Once formally adopted, the Act, which takes the legal form of a Regulation, will enter into force 20 days after publication in the EU Official Journal and will apply six months later. The designated gatekeepers will have a maximum of six months after the designation decision by the Commission to ensure compliance with the obligations laid down in the Digital Markets Act.

而 DSA 至少要到 2024 年才有機會會實施:

Once adopted, the DSA will be directly applicable across the EU and will apply fifteen months or from 1 January 2024, whichever later, after entry into force.


歐盟對 Google 的 24.2 億歐元的罰款確定

從「Google loses challenge against EU antitrust ruling, $2.8-bln fine」這邊看到的,新聞的標題寫的是換算後的美金。

新聞裡提到歐盟主要有三個主題在跟 Google 訴訟,這次確定的是利用搜尋引擎偏好自家的購物比較服務,產生不公平競爭:

Competition Commissioner Margrethe Vestager fined the world's most popular internet search engine in 2017 over the use of its own price comparison shopping service to gain an unfair advantage over smaller European rivals.

另外兩個還在進行的是 AndroidAdSense

The company could face defeats in appeals against the other two rulings involving its Android mobile operating system and AdSense advertising service, where the EU has stronger arguments, antitrust specialists say.

應該是還有個 YouTube 才對,不過印象中主要是版權相關的問題,跟 antitrust 這邊的關係好像少了一些...

Google 推的 AMP 終於廢了...

傳言一陣子了,最近又在「Google AMP is dead! AMP pages no longer get preferential treatment in Google search」這邊看到這個消息,讓人煩悶的 AMP 終於可以丟到垃圾桶了。

Google 的公告說明則是在「More time, tools, and details on the page experience update」這邊。

This means that using the AMP format is no longer required and that any page, irrespective of its Core Web Vitals score or page experience status, will be eligible to appear in the Top Stories carousel.

一般猜測會有這樣的改變,主要是在去年年底啟動的反托拉斯訴訟,針對 Google 在推廣 AMP 技術時利用 search engine 的優勢造成不公平競爭:「Google AMP gets a shock to its system as advisor quits, lawsuit claims foul play」。

Google's Accelerated Mobile Pages technology, known as AMP among web publishers, took a beating this week as an antitrust lawsuit filed by the Attorney General of Texas charged that the ad biz used AMP to hinder competition.


有風聲說司法部會把 Chrome 拆出 Google

看到這則新聞時決定讓子彈飛了一陣子,但好像沒看到什麼新消息:「Feds may target Google’s Chrome browser for breakup」,Hacker News 上也有討論可以翻翻:「Feds may target Google's Chrome browser for breakup (politico.com)」。

GoogleChrome 上面做了不少看起來就很容易觸發反壟斷法的事情 (剛好這幾天又有像是「Google Chrome 在結束清站台資料時 (像是 cookie) 不會清 Google 自家的網站」這樣的事情),會直接先把 Google Chrome 拆出來的消息不算太意外。

不過大家對反壟斷調查更有興趣的應該是 YouTube 會怎麼被處理。網路上經常會看到「如何逃離 Google」之類的文章,Google 很多服務都有其他平台可以提供,或是 open source 軟體可以使用,但每次一講到 YouTube 時大家都很頭痛,都會提到 YouTube 的難以取代性,因為目前其他平台沒有一個是堪用的...


微軟透過 Windows Update 強制安裝新版 Edge

前幾天在虛擬機內的 Windows 突然被裝了新版的 Edge,發現國外也有報導出來了:「With Edge, Microsoft’s forced Windows updates just sank to a new low」。

這次是 Windows Update 推進來的,即使在 Windows 7 上已經 EoL (2020/01/14),不會有任何安全性更新,微軟也是濫用透過這個方式推進來:

這種方式也都讓大家想到與 antitrust 的關係:

It all immediately made me think: what would the antitrust enforcers of the ‘90s, who punished Microsoft for bundling Internet Explorer with Windows, think about this modern abuse of Microsoft’s platform?


歐盟開始調查 Google 的壟斷

歐盟開始調查 Google 的壟斷:「Europe to accuse Google of illegally abusing its dominance」,原始報導出自「Europe to accuse Google of illegally abusing its dominance」。

不知道是不是跟先前在「Google 利用搜索的壟斷優勢打擊競爭對手」提到的文件有關:

Google 利用搜索的壟斷優勢打擊競爭對手

最近很熱門的新聞:「FTC: Google Altered Search Results For Profit」,國內也有媒體已經報導 (報導:FTC機密文件指控Google不當商業行為壟斷搜尋市場),不過沒受到太多注意?

起因自 The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) 透過 FOIA (資訊自由法) 要資料的時候,意外拿到 2012 年 FTCGoogle 壟斷而做出評估的文件,整個案件於 2013 年年初達成和解。

WSJ 的報導可以參考「Inside the U.S. Antitrust Probe of Google」這篇。(有 Paywall,可以透過 Google 搜尋這個標題後再點進去 XDDD)

另外 Google 內部知道他們的市占率比外部估出來的高出不少 (外部估算 65%,但內部自己評估 69% 到 84%),但也因此感到欣慰 (避免了反壟斷的壓力):

Data included in the report suggest Google was more dominant in the U.S. Internet search market than was widely believed. The company estimated its market share at between 69% and 84% during a period when research firm comScore put it at 65%. “From an antitrust perspective, I’m happy to see [comScore] underestimate our share,” the report quoted Google Chief Economist Hal Varian as saying, without specifying the context.