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廣告的 SDK 因為走 HTTP 傳輸而洩漏大量資料...

廣告走 HTTP 而且還帶了一堆敏感資訊,算是最近討論蠻熱烈的問題:「Leaking ads」。

而且還分析找出有哪些是超大的廣告 unencrypted domain,像是這樣:

不過裡面一堆都不熟悉的廣告業者,反倒是聯想的網域被抓出來了:

不過行動裝置上能控制的東西太少了... 裝廣告阻擋程式比較實際,iOS 上不 JB 應該是只有 VPN 的方案,而 Android 上的方案應該就比較多了,除了 VPN 以外有 /etc/hosts 甚至是 firewall solution。

擋 mobile.twitter.com 上的廣告

在桌機上面用 mobile.twitter.com 速度比 twitter.com 快很多,所以平常用桌機時都是用 mobile 這個版本在逛,但因為 mobile 版本對 css name 有處理過,使得 uBlock Origin 這類軟體不好處理廣告的部份...

前陣子在日本的時候發現頁面上多了一堆廣告,本來以為是在日本用日本 IP address 才會有所以就沒有太在意,結果回台灣後發現也出現了... 看起來是 css name 又因為改版被改掉而使得原本的規則失效了...

網路上找其他方法看看有沒有方向,結果找到「Block "Promoted Tweets" on mobile.twitter.com · Issue #351 · uBlockOrigin/uAssets」這篇,雖然最後的 commit 還是用 css name 的方式,但在留言處 Jud 提到可以用 Procedural cosmetic filters 中的 XPath 解決:

mobile.twitter.com##:xpath(/html/body//div[@role="article"][.//text()[starts-with(., "Promoted")]])

這條規則不算難懂,先找出 <div role="article"> 的元素,然後判斷下面的節點有沒有文字化開頭後是 Promoted 的字串。

在還沒有更新規則之前,這個拿來擋一擋應該還行... 不過條件寫的有點簡單,可能會有誤判,也許改抓 div 的「Promoted by 」應該會比較好?也就是這樣:

mobile.twitter.com##:xpath(/html/body//div[@role="article"][.//div[text()[starts-with(., "Promoted by ")]]])

就先這樣搞吧...

俄羅斯在英國脫歐的議題上,也利用 Social Network 的廣告影響民意

TechCrunch 上看到的,俄羅斯政府不只在美國選舉時這樣做,同時也在英國脫歐公投的議題上進行操作:「Twitter says Russians spent ~$1k on six Brexit-related ads」。

不過金額比美國選舉時小了很多:

In response to the Commission’s request for information concerning Russian-funded campaign activity conducted during the regulated period for the June 2016 EU Referendum (15 April to 23 June 2016), Twitter reviewed referendum-related advertising on our platform during the relevant time period.

Among the accounts that we have previously identified as likely funded from Russian sources, we have thus far identified one account—@RT_com— which promoted referendum-related content during the regulated period. $1,031.99 was spent on six referendum-related ads during the regulated period.

With regard to future activity by Russian-funded accounts, on 26 October 2017, Twitter announced that it would no longer accept advertisements from RT and Sputnik and will donate the $1.9 million that RT had spent globally on advertising on Twitter to academic research into elections and civil engagement. That decision was based on a retrospective review that we initiated in the aftermath of the 2016 U.S. Presidential Elections and following the U.S. intelligence community’s conclusion that both RT and Sputnik have attempted to interfere with the election on behalf of the Russian government. Accordingly, @RT_com will not be eligible to use Twitter’s promoted products in the future.

去電視廣告的服務又來了...

看到「Plex’s DVR now lets you skip the commercials… by removing them for you」這篇文章,介紹 Plex 要推出去電視廣告的服務...

維基百科上的介紹比較清楚:「Plex (software)」,主要有兩個元件組成,media server 與 player:

  • The Plex Media Server desktop application runs on Windows, macOS and Linux-compatibles including some types of NAS devices. The 'server' desktop application organizes video, audio and photos from your collections and from online services, enabling the players to access and stream the contents.
  • The media players. There are official clients available for mobile devices, smart TVs, and streaming boxes, a web app and Plex Home Theater (no longer maintained), as well as many third-party alternatives.

然後這次要推出的功能是直接在錄影的時候把廣告拿掉:

Plex confirmed it’s rolling out a new feature that will allow cord cutters to skip the commercials in the TV programs recorded using its software, making the company’s lower-cost solution to streaming live TV more compelling. Unlike other commercial-skip options, Plex’s option will remove commercials from recordings automatically.

這讓我有些印像... 當年 TiVo 也有類似的功能,不過文章裡有提到 TiVo 是提供 skip 而非直接拿掉:

The new feature works by locating the commercials in your recorded media. It then actually removes them before the media is stored in your library. That sounds like it could be even better than TiVo’s commercial skipping option, for example, because you don’t have to press a button to skip the ads — they’re being pulled out for you, proactively.

不過主要是認識了 Plex 這個軟體... 如果是電視兒童的話應該用的到 XD 台灣目前的電視節目好像看的比較少...

俄羅斯展現「錢要花在刀口上」的功力?

TechCrunch 這篇「Trump and Clinton spent $81M on US election Facebook ads, Russian agency $46K」講到 Facebook 目前階段所判斷出來,能夠識別是俄羅斯政府投入的資金,只有 USD$46K,相較於美國兩黨投入了 USD$81M 差了 1760 倍:

While there might have been other Russian disinformation groups, the IRA spent $46,000 on pre-election day Facebook ads compared to $81 million spent by Clinton and Trump together, discluding political action committees who could have spent even more than that on the campaigns’ behalf.

而俄羅斯投入的廣告散佈率超過 1.26 億的 Facebook 使用者,以及 2000 萬 Instagram 的使用者:

Facebook today said that the Russians still reached 126 million Facebook users, as well as 20 million Instagram users.

俄羅斯這團隊的水準真不賴... 只可惜大概沒辦法寫在 resume 上。

聽證會的資料可以從「Hearings」這邊看到。

透過 DMCA takedown notice 非法下掉 Easylist 內的過濾條件

參考「Ad blocking is under attack」這邊,有業主 functionalclam.com 透過 DMCA takedown notice 發信要求 Easylist 移除過濾條件 (參考「2017-08-02-LevenLabs.md」),對應的 commit 參考「M: Removed due to DMCA takedown request」) 這邊。

這件事情再次證實了 DMCA takedown notice 被濫用的情況,明明不是侵權的情況卻被拿來濫用 (因為對原提出者唯一的處罰必須過反過來提告,然後要得自己舉證因為這樣受損)。

目前看起來 EFF 願意介入,就來看看後續了。

uBlock Origin 支援的 :has()

查資料的時候發現 uBlock Origin 的「Static filter syntax」已經自己實作 :has() 了 (雖然有一些限制)。

這個 CSS4 (draft) 的特性目前還沒有瀏覽器支援,所以 uBlock Origin 決定自己來:

This is a planned CSS4 operator, but no browser supports it yet. I decided to go ahead and implement it so that it can already be used. See The Relational Pseudo-class: :has() in the Selector Level 4/Editor's Draft.

由於效能問題,要求一定要有 hostname,而不能是 global rule:

uBO's implementation is simplified so as to ensure performance. The :has operator must be used with at least one hostname (it must be specific), and must be of the form (example)[.]

這對於 html block 長的幾乎一樣,只有在某個地方多出 Promoted by ... 之類的結構處理起來很方便,可以拿來找出「裡面有廣告 div 的母體 div」然後整包處理掉... (你不會只想要拿掉 Promoted by ...,而是連廣告內容都拿掉)

Facebook 用哪些資訊來決定投放給你的廣告

華盛頓郵報整理出來了 Facebook 的廣告所使用的 98 個個人資訊:「98 personal data points that Facebook uses to target ads to you」。

基本的個人資訊 (甚至是朋友的),以及使用什麼瀏覽器都可以預期;而 Like 或是參加的 Group 都會被計算也是意料中的事情,不過連信用卡的種類也都在內就頗特別的...

來檢視一下自己的防禦機制有哪些... 瀏覽器預設擋下第三方 cookie:

Ghostery 預設把所有外部元件擋下來,再用白名單開想要看的部份。用 uBlock Origin 擋下所有廣告。

另外用「Force Facebook Most Recent」強制 Facebook 轉到 Most Recent 的 Timeline 上。

不知道這樣夠不夠用...

最後來列出這 98 個條件:

  1. Location
  2. Age
  3. Generation
  4. Gender
  5. Language
  6. Education level
  7. Field of study
  8. School
  9. Ethnic affinity
  10. Income and net worth
  11. Home ownership and type
  12. Home value
  13. Property size
  14. Square footage of home
  15. Year home was built
  16. Household composition
  17. Users who have an anniversary within 30 days
  18. Users who are away from family or hometown
  19. Users who are friends with someone who has an anniversary, is newly married or engaged, recently moved, or has an upcoming birthday
  20. Users in long-distance relationships
  21. Users in new relationships
  22. Users who have new jobs
  23. Users who are newly engaged
  24. Users who are newly married
  25. Users who have recently moved
  26. Users who have birthdays soon
  27. Parents
  28. Expectant parents
  29. Mothers, divided by “type” (soccer, trendy, etc.)
  30. Users who are likely to engage in politics
  31. Conservatives and liberals
  32. Relationship status
  33. Employer
  34. Industry
  35. Job title
  36. Office type
  37. Interests
  38. Users who own motorcycles
  39. Users who plan to buy a car (and what kind/brand of car, and how soon)
  40. Users who bought auto parts or accessories recently
  41. Users who are likely to need auto parts or services
  42. Style and brand of car you drive
  43. Year car was bought
  44. Age of car
  45. How much money user is likely to spend on next car
  46. Where user is likely to buy next car
  47. How many employees your company has
  48. Users who own small businesses
  49. Users who work in management or are executives
  50. Users who have donated to charity (divided by type)
  51. Operating system
  52. Users who play canvas games
  53. Users who own a gaming console
  54. Users who have created a Facebook event
  55. Users who have used Facebook Payments
  56. Users who have spent more than average on Facebook Payments
  57. Users who administer a Facebook page
  58. Users who have recently uploaded photos to Facebook
  59. Internet browser
  60. Email service
  61. Early/late adopters of technology
  62. Expats (divided by what country they are from originally)
  63. Users who belong to a credit union, national bank or regional bank
  64. Users who investor (divided by investment type)
  65. Number of credit lines
  66. Users who are active credit card users
  67. Credit card type
  68. Users who have a debit card
  69. Users who carry a balance on their credit card
  70. Users who listen to the radio
  71. Preference in TV shows
  72. Users who use a mobile device (divided by what brand they use)
  73. Internet connection type
  74. Users who recently acquired a smartphone or tablet
  75. Users who access the Internet through a smartphone or tablet
  76. Users who use coupons
  77. Types of clothing user’s household buys
  78. Time of year user’s household shops most
  79. Users who are “heavy” buyers of beer, wine or spirits
  80. Users who buy groceries (and what kinds)
  81. Users who buy beauty products
  82. Users who buy allergy medications, cough/cold medications, pain relief products, and over-the-counter meds
  83. Users who spend money on household products
  84. Users who spend money on products for kids or pets, and what kinds of pets
  85. Users whose household makes more purchases than is average
  86. Users who tend to shop online (or off)
  87. Types of restaurants user eats at
  88. Kinds of stores user shops at
  89. Users who are “receptive” to offers from companies offering online auto insurance, higher education or mortgages, and prepaid debit cards/satellite TV
  90. Length of time user has lived in house
  91. Users who are likely to move soon
  92. Users who are interested in the Olympics, fall football, cricket or Ramadan
  93. Users who travel frequently, for work or pleasure
  94. Users who commute to work
  95. Types of vacations user tends to go on
  96. Users who recently returned from a trip
  97. Users who recently used a travel app
  98. Users who participate in a timeshare

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