美國政府對於書面文字的要求

好像是在 Twitter 上看到的,但一時間找不到是誰推的...

美國在 2010 年簽署的「Plain Writing Act of 2010」要求各種政府文件都必須用簡單的文字書寫,甚至還弄一個官方網站「Home | plainlanguage.gov」列出說明...

在網站裡面的「Use simple words and phrases」給了一個蠻長對應表,可以將一些艱澀的法律慣用詞彙換成平常常用的詞彙...

維基百科給的 Before & After 範例還蠻不錯的,在比較極端的情況下,讀起來的確輕鬆很多:

(Before) The amount of expenses reimbursed to a claimant under this subpart shall be reduced by any amount that the claimant receives from a collateral source. In cases in which a claimant receives reimbursement under this subpart for expenses that also will or may be reimbursed from another source, the claimant shall subrogate the United States to the claim for payment from the collateral source up to the amount for which the claimant was reimbursed under this subpart.

(After) If you get a payment from a collateral source, we will reduce our payment by the amount you get. If you get payments from us and from a collateral source for the same expenses, you must pay us back the amount we paid you.

美國政府暗中介入好萊塢的劇本,影響大眾對戰爭的看法

透過 Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) 取得的資料顯示美國政府 (包括了五角大廈、CIA、NSA) 如何介入好萊塢,影響大眾對於戰爭的看法:「EXCLUSIVE: Documents expose how Hollywood promotes war on behalf of the Pentagon, CIA and NSA」。

灰標「US military intelligence agencies have influenced over 1,800 movies and TV shows」可以看出影響的層面。

The documents reveal for the first time the vast scale of US government control in Hollywood, including the ability to manipulate scripts or even prevent films too critical of the Pentagon from being made — not to mention influencing some of the most popular film franchises in recent years.

從很意想不到的地方介入... 引用其中一個說明:


Jon Voight in Transformers — in this scene, just after American troops have been attacked by a Decepticon robot, Pentagon Hollywood liaison Phil Strub inserted the line ‘Bring em home’, granting the military a protective, paternalistic quality, when in reality the DOD does quite the opposite.

VENUE Act 對專利蟑螂的反擊

EFF 的「We Can't Keep Waiting: Pass the VENUE Act This Year」這篇寫的還蠻清楚的,VENUE Act (S. 2733) 是一個看起來頗有效的 workaround,先上這個 workaround 降低專利蟑螂的攻勢。

專利蟑螂 (通常是原告) 可以選擇任意一個聯邦法庭提出控告:

As the law stands now, patent owners have almost complete control over which federal district to file a case in. That’s a major problem.

而專利蟑螂會挑選對原告最有利的地區來提出控告,也就是美國德克薩斯東區聯邦地區法院 (U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Texas),這對被告方很不利:

According to the Mercatus Center and George Mason University, nearly half of all patent cases are filed in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Texas. That’s more than 70 times the average number of patent cases heard in other federal judicial districts.

Respected academics have identified evidence that procedures in the Eastern District of Texas unnecessarily favor plaintiffs and impose significant, unnecessary costs on companies and individuals accused of infringement, however questionable the patents and demands may be.

而 VENUE Act 則是拔掉這個武器,必須在與被告相關的主要地區提告。