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Mozilla 對於 WoSign + StartCom 根憑證的新發展:拔除

Okay,在 Mozilla 的人跟 WoSign + StartCom + 360 的人談過後有了新的進展。

幾個小時前 Mozilla 提了新版的草案出來 (對,還是草案):「Remediation Plan for WoSign and StartCom」。但由於 Kathleen Wilson 跟 Gervase Markham 都沒有太多意見,我猜這應該會接近定案了。

這次的處分草案由 Kathleen Wilson 發出來,會包括這些 root certificate,可以看到包括了所有 WoSign 與 StartCom 的 CA:

1) Subject: CN=CA 沃通根证书, OU=null, O=WoSign CA Limited, C=CN
2) Subject: CN=Certification Authority of WoSign, OU=null, O=WoSign CA Limited, C=CN
3) Subject: CN=Certification Authority of WoSign G2, OU=null, O=WoSign CA Limited, C=CN
4) Subject: CN=CA WoSign ECC Root, OU=null, O=WoSign CA Limited, C=CN
5) Subject: CN=StartCom Certification Authority, OU=Secure Digital Certificate Signing, O=StartCom Ltd., C=IL
6) Subject: CN=StartCom Certification Authority, OU=Secure Digital Certificate Signing, O=StartCom Ltd., C=IL
7) Subject: CN=StartCom Certification Authority G2, OU=null, O=StartCom Ltd., C=IL

首先是認定這一連串的事件是惡意行為:

Based on the information that I have seen regarding WoSign, I believe that WoSign intentionally bent the rules in order to continue issuing SHA-1 SSL certs, when they knew full well that was no longer allowed. I also believe that the deception continued even after Mozilla directly asked WoSign about this. WoSign has lost my confidence in their ability and intention to follow Mozilla's policies.

所以打算採取與 CNNIC 類似的處分方法,但很不幸的由於規模不一樣,所以被迫採用另外的方式來處理:

Therefore, I think we should respond similarly to WoSign as we did to CNNIC [1][2]. Unfortunately, the number of certificates and the timescales involved are such that we prefer not to create a list of the domains for which previously-issued certs that chain up to the Affected Roots may continue to be trusted, so our approach will be a little different, as Gerv previously described[3].

這次處分的過程會包括四個項目,第一個是在 Firefox 51 會用黑名單的方式將這些 root certificate 擋下,但會信任 2016/10/21 前所發出的憑證以降低對目前網站的衝擊:

1) Distrust certificates chaining up to Affected Roots with a notBefore date after October 21, 2016. If additional back-dating is discovered (by any means) to circumvent this control, then Mozilla will immediately and permanently revoke trust in the Affected Roots.
-- This change will go into the Firefox 51 release train [4].
-- The code will use the subject key id (hash of public key) to identify the Affected Roots, so that the control will also apply to cross-certs of the Affected Roots.

然後將之前簽出來的 SHA-1 憑證列入 OneCRL:

2) Add the previously identified backdated SHA-1 certs chaining up to the Affected Roots to OneCRL.

另外一個非常大的事情是,Mozilla 將永久不信任安永香港的稽核報告:

3) No longer accept audits carried out by Ernst & Young Hong Kong.

Gervase Markham 做了補充「永久」的部份:

To be clear, this is a permanent ban, applicable worldwide, but only to the Hong Kong branch of E&Y. (If further issues are found with E&Y audits elsewhere, then we might consider something with wider scope.)

最後一個是移除 NSS 裡包的憑證:

4) Remove the Affected Roots from NSS after the SSL certificates issued before October 1, 2016, have expired or have been replaced.

在討論裡有提到 Firefox 與 NSS 的處置日期不太一樣的問題 (一個是 10/21,一個是 10/01),應該會在正式的定案時修正。

另外在「StartCom & Qihoo Incidents」這邊,Google 家的 Ryan Sleevi 也寫了一串,也許是他目前個人的看法 (但畢竟他是 Google 家主事的人之一),基本上的立場與 Mozilla 相同 (將 WoSign 與 StartCom 視為同一個單位,而且是刻意違反 Baseline Requirement),所以後續應該也會有動作了...

iOS 阻擋 WoSign 憑證

mozilla.dev.security.policy 上看到有人行動了:「Apple's response to the WoSign incidents」。這使得 Apple 成為 WoSign 事件中第一個行動的單位。

Apple 這次先把 WoSign 放入 iOS 憑證清單的黑名單公告在這邊:「Blocking Trust for WoSign CA Free SSL Certificate G2」。

WoSign 在 iOS 產品線中是靠 StartComComodo 的交叉簽章,所以如果 Apple 只想擋 WoSign 憑證的話,必須以阻擋 Intermediate CA 的方式避開:

Although no WoSign root is in the list of Apple trusted roots, this intermediate CA used cross-signed certificate relationships with StartCom and Comodo to establish trust on Apple products.

不過為了降低對 user 的影響,這次的阻擋會有例外。當 CT log server 在 2016-09-19 前收到的 SSL certificate 還是會信任 (要注意的重點是,這邊的日期不是簽發,是送到 CT log server 上):

To avoid disruption to existing WoSign certificate holders and to allow their transition to trusted roots, Apple products will trust individual existing certificates issued from this intermediate CA and published to public Certificate Transparency log servers by 2016-09-19.

接下來會開始更深入的調查 WoSign 與 StartCom:

As the investigation progresses, we will take further action on WoSign/StartCom trust anchors in Apple products as needed to protect users.

另外本來的棚子裡,Qihoo 360 與 StartCom 正式提出要求在 2016/10/04 與 Mozilla 的人面對面討論 (在英國):「WoSign and StartCom: next steps」:

Following the publication of the recent investigative report, representatives of Qihoo 360 and StartCom have requested a face-to-face meeting with Mozilla. We have accepted, and that meeting will take place next Tuesday in London.

繼續來看進度... 下個禮拜應該會有更多的資料出來。

StartSSL 將 auth.startssl.com 放在奇虎 360 的機房內

話說最近用 Nuzzel 用的還算開心,可以抓到不少文章,但意外的是這篇在 Nuzzel 上沒看到,是在 Allen OwnFacebook 時間軸上看到的 (這則)。

原文出自「Why I stopped using StartSSL (Hint: it involves a Chinese company)」。

最主要的安全問題在於 auth.startssl.com 放在中國公司奇虎 360 的機房內,而這是身份認證用的伺服器。基於中國是個人治而非法治的國家 (i.e. 無法確保 CA 的稽核機制是有效的),我決定把 StartSSL 的 root certificate 從 trusted chain 裡面拔掉,以免中獎...

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