Apache Software Foundation 走掉一批人...

在「Changes at the Apache Software Foundation」這邊看到的消息,ASF 突然走了三位都超過十年的資深成員,其中一位還是 ASF 的共同創辦人。關於 ASF 官方的公告,可以在「Statement by The Apache Software Foundation Board of Directors」這邊讀到。

如同 LWN 說的,為什麼三個人突然同時離開的狀況還不清楚:

There is no indication of why all these people decided to leave at the same time.

假新聞產生器與偵測器

Hacker News 上看到的消息,是關於「使用類神經網路產生新聞」(也就是透過程式大量產生假新聞),這次的結果包括了「產生」與「偵測」兩個面向:「Grover – A State-of-the-Art Defense Against Neural Fake News (allenai.org)」。

實驗的網站在「Grover - A State-of-the-Art Defense against Neural Fake News」這邊,另外也有論文「Defending Against Neural Fake News」可以讀。

幾個月前,OpenAI 利用類神經網路,研發出「自動寫新聞」的程式,當時他們宣稱因為效果太好,決定不完整公開成果:「Better Language Models and Their Implications」,中文的報導可以參考 iThome 這篇:「AI文字產生技術引發假新聞爭議,OpenAI決定只公開部份技術成果」。

而現在 The Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence 則是成功重製了 OpenAI 的成果,取名叫 Grover,發現訓練出來的模型除了可以拿來寫新聞外,也可以拿來偵測文章是不是機器產生的,而且就他們自己測試,辨識成功率還蠻高的:

To study and detect neural fake news, we built a model named Grover. Our study presents a surprising result: the best way to detect neural fake news is to use a model that is also a generator. The generator is most familiar with its own habits, quirks, and traits, as well as those from similar AI models, especially those trained on similar data, i.e. publicly available news. Our model, Grover, is a generator that can easily spot its own generated fake news articles, as well as those generated by other AIs. In a challenging setting with limited access to neural fake news articles, Grover obtains over 92% accuracy at telling apart human-written from machine-written news. Please read our publication for more information.

不過看起來 source code 與 model 還是沒放出來,但看起來遲早會有對應的 open source clone...

我想到在攻殼電視動畫裡面的情報管制戰,雖然電視動畫裡沒有講得很詳細,但感覺這類工具就是其中一環...

測試 GFW 變成一個服務了...

針對分析在 GFW 牆內的情況,看到「GFWaaS - GFW as a Service」這樣的服務出現了,依據價位提供兩個不同等級的功能:

  • $49/month 是 HAR Logs + Screencasts
  • $199/month 則是再加上 Browser VNC

對於人不在中國,但需要照顧中國市場的開發團隊應該會有些幫助?

FTC 找了七家 ISP 業者要研究隱私問題...

FTC 要研究 ISP 手上有哪些客戶的資料,然後提供給誰:「FTC Seeks to Examine the Privacy Practices of Broadband Providers」。

The Federal Trade Commission issued orders to seven U.S. Internet broadband providers and related entities seeking information the agency will use to examine how broadband companies collect, retain, use, and disclose information about consumers and their devices.

包括了這七家,裡面的六家都算大業者,被 FTC 納入不算意外,第七家包括了 Google Fiber Inc.,到時候不知道會有什麼資訊出來:

The orders were sent to: AT&T Inc., AT&T Mobility LLC, Comcast Cable Communications doing business as Xfinity, Google Fiber Inc., T-Mobile US Inc., Verizon Communications Inc., and Cellco Partnership doing business as Verizon Wireless.

看了一下 PDF,應該是 45 天後要回覆,加上整理的時間,應該是下半年會看到一些整理?

西班牙透過新法規限制 Uber 營業

包括 UberCabify 都受到新規範影響:「Ride-hailing companies suspend Barcelona services after new regulations」。

新規範限制乘客必須在上車前十五分鐘叫車:

The Catalan government ruled that ride-hailing services could only pick up passengers after a 15-minute delay from the time they were booked.

不是直接說你違法,而是用這個方式壓制隨叫隨到的服務... 這個方式應該會擴散到其他地區。

Facebook 在南韓因為太慢被罰錢???

看到「South Korea fines Facebook $369K for slowing user internet connections」這則新聞,裡面提到 Facebook 的 reroute 行為:

The Korea Communications Commission (KCC) began investigating Facebook last May and found that the company had illegally limited user access, as reported by ABC News. Local South Korean laws prohibit internet services from rerouting users’ connections to networks in Hong Kong and US instead of local ISPs without notifying those users. In a few cases, such rerouting slowed down users’ connections by as much as 4.5 times.

沒有告知使用者就導去香港或是美國的伺服器,聽起來像是 GeoDNS 的架構,以及 Facebook 的 CDN 架構幹的事情?不過在原報導裡面,另外一個指控是:

The KCC probed claims that Facebook intentionally slowed access while it negotiated network usage fees with internet service providers.

另外南韓官方也不承認使用者條款內的告知有效的:

Facebook said it did not violate the law in part because its terms of use say it cannot guarantee its services will operate without delays or interference. KCC officials rejected that argument, saying the terms were unfair. It recommended the company amend its terms of use.

現在看起來應該是要打官司?

義大利政府的反貪組織用 Tor 的 Onion (Hidden Service) 接受檢舉

在「Italian Anti-Corruption Authority (ANAC) Adopts Onion Services」這邊看到,義大利政府因為法令要求必須保護告密者,而不只是在需要提供身份的階段才保護:

Many national laws (such as Italian Dlgs. 231/2001) require companies to adopt corporate governance structures and risk prevention systems, which can include allowing whistleblowing submissions. However, most whistleblowing laws only protect whistleblowers when their identity is disclosed, which can put the person reporting corruption at risk.

In 2016, the International Standards Organization (ISO) released a new model for organizations setting up and operating anti-bribery management systems, ISO 37001:2016. To meet ISO standards, organizations or companies implementing anti-corruption procedures must allow anonymous reporting, as explicitly indicated in point 8.9 of section C of ISO 37001:2016.

Furthermore, national laws (such as recent Italian 179/2017) require the adoption of IT systems for whistleblowing, leading to the practical integration and use of Tor for its technological anonymity features.

而義大利政府的系統選擇用 Tor 的 Onion (Hidden Service) 提供服務接受檢舉:

To comply with these standards, the Italian Anti-Corruption Authority (ANAC), an administrative watchdog, just launched their national online whistleblowing platform using onion services, giving whistleblowers who come forward a secure way to report illegal activity while protecting their identities.

這使用了 hidden service 的特性,讓伺服器端完全無法得知 client 的位置,對於使用有足夠保護的 browser 來說 (像是 Tor Browser),這可以完全讓 server 端無法得知身份,即使政府的伺服器都入侵也沒辦法知道告密者是誰。

這點頗先進的...

台美之間的租稅協定 (還在橋)

看到「因應美稅改 賴揆:加速洽簽台美租稅協定」這則消息,如果沒記錯的話,有不少服務都是美國公司出帳... (像是 AWSSlackGitHub 這類在公司裡很常用的服務)

參考「我國股利、利息及權利金扣繳率(%)一覽表」這邊的資料,應該有機會從 20% 降到 10%?也就是說實付 100 萬的金額本來要多繳 25 萬 (帳要做成 100 萬 / (1 - 0.2) = 125 萬,其中的 20% 是 25 萬萬稅,100 萬實際支付),現在只要繳 11.1 萬 (100 萬 / (1 - 0.1) = 111.1 萬)?

不過有些特殊情況本來就有更優惠的稅務方式 (像是使用國外平台提供服務 (e.g. AWS),而服務的對象也是境外使用者的情況),這些組合可以研究看看要怎麼搞...

ExpressVPN 在土耳其的 VPN server 被抄...

ExpressVPN 在土耳其的 VPN server 被抄,為了調查大使的刺殺案件:「VPN Server Seized to Investigate Russian Ambassador’s Assassination」。

A VPN server operated by ExpressVPN was seized by Turkish authorities to investigate the assassination of Andrei Karlov, the Russian Ambassador to Turkey. Authorities hoped to find more information on people who removed digital traces of the assassin, but the server in question held no logs.

ExpressVPN 官方的回覆在「ExpressVPN statement on Andrey Karlov investigation」,主要的部份是:

As we stated to Turkish authorities in January 2017, ExpressVPN does not and has never possessed any customer connection logs that would enable us to know which customer was using the specific IPs cited by the investigators. Furthermore, we were unable to see which customers accessed Gmail or Facebook during the time in question, as we do not keep activity logs. We believe that the investigators’ seizure and inspection of the VPN server in question confirmed these points.

至於是不是真的,就需要時間確認了...

俄羅斯的 BGP traffic reroute...

前幾天 (12 號) BGPmon 發現有很多知名的網段被導去俄羅斯:「Popular Destinations rerouted to Russia」。

Early this morning (UTC) our systems detected a suspicious event where many prefixes for high profile destinations were being announced by an unused Russian Autonomous System.

可以看到相當多知名的網段都被導走:

Starting at 04:43 (UTC) 80 prefixes normally announced by organizations such Google, Apple, Facebook, Microsoft, Twitch, NTT Communications and Riot Games were now detected in the global BGP routing tables with an Origin AS of 39523 (DV-LINK-AS), out of Russia.

從圖中也可以看出來 AS39523 透過 AS31133 發出這些 routing,然後主要是透過 AS6939 (Hurricane Electric) 擴散:

這幾年俄羅斯在網路上的動作多很多...