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Percona 分析在 AWS 上跑 Percona XtraDB Cluster 的效能 (I/O bound)

Percona 的人分析了在 Amazon EC2 上跑 Percona XtraDB Cluster (PXC) 效能 (I/O bound):「Best Practices for Percona XtraDB Cluster on AWS」。

先看他們做出來的圖:

直接跳到結論的地方。如果資料可以掉,用 i3 本地 storage 的效能是最好的,如果要資料不能掉,用 EBS 的 Provisioned IOPS SSD (io1) 的效能會比 General Purpose (gp2) 好很多。

另外 instance type 的選擇上,避免用 {i3,r4}.large,因為測試出來發現 {i3,r4}.xlarge 的效能好不只一倍。

不過 Aurora 的 Multi-master 已經在 Preview 了啊,如果 Percona 的人拿到帳號的話,應該會有單位成本的效能比較可以看...

Vultr 也推出 Bare Metal 的機器了

AWS 推出 Bare Metal 版本的 Instance 後 (參考「Amazon EC2 推出第一款 Bare Metal 的 Instance」),Vultr 也推出 Bare Metal 機器了:「Deploy Bare Metal Cloud Servers With Vultr!」。

目前先在新加坡推出,之後會再往其他地區推出 :

We are first introducing bare metal in Singapore and more locations will be rolled out in the coming weeks.

在「Vultr Bare Metal - Dedicated servers with hourly billing. - Vultr.com」頁可以看到目前只提供一種機器,E3-1270v6 + 32GB RAM + 2*240GB SSD,一個月 USD$300 ($0.446/hr)。

對照 AWS 提供的 E5-2686v4 + 512GB RAM + 15.2TB SSD,Vultr 的這個規格很微妙... 會有 bare metal 需求通常是因為效能上的不足,但你給的這個規格感覺就鳥鳥的,對效能的幫助好像不大啊...

Amazon EC2 各種虛擬化技術的效能

Brendan Gregg 整理了 Amazon EC2 的各種虛擬化技術以及效能的比較:「AWS EC2 Virtualization 2017」,從他做的這張圖可以看到最新的兩個技術 (編號 7 與 8) 的效能相當好:

主要分成三種虛擬化技術:

  • Virtualized in Software: While this can support an unmodified guest OS, many operations are emulated and slow. Apps may run 2x to 10x slower, or worse.
  • Paravirtualization: The hypervisor provides efficient hypercalls, and the guest OS uses drivers and kernel modifications to call these hypercalls. It's using software and coordination between the hypervisor and guest to improve performance. I'd expect measurable overhead of 10% to 50% (depending on the PV type and workload).
  • Virtualized in Hardware: Hardware support for virtualization, and near bare-metal speeds. I'd expect between 0.1% and 1.5% overhead.

用硬體虛擬化的過程... 然後最後也推出 bare metal 的機器 XD

Amazon Kinesis Streams 的 Video 版本:Amazon Kinesis Video Streams

這次 AWS 推出的 Amazon Kinesis Video Streams 在技術上看起來跟 Amazon Media Services 有不少重疊 (參考先前提到的文章「AWS Media Services 推出一卡車與影音相關的服務...」),但產品面上區隔開的服務:「Amazon Kinesis Video Streams – Serverless Video Ingestion and Storage for Vision-Enabled Apps」。

開頭介紹就有提到適合用在各種 IoT 裝置,用在一直有影像資料產生的設備上:

Cell phones, security cameras, baby monitors, drones, webcams, dashboard cameras, and even satellites can all generate high-intensity, high-quality video streams. Homes, offices, factories, cities, streets, and highways are now host to massive numbers of cameras.

像這張圖的所介紹的流程,以及可以保留天數的設計:

底層用了不少與 Amazon Media Services 相同的技術,但是包裝成不同的產品...

AWS 的翻譯服務:Amazon Translate

Google 的應該是做的最早的,MicrosoftMicrosoft Translator Text API 也出來一陣子了,而 AWS 在這次 re:Invent 推出了自家的翻譯服務 Amazon Translate:「Introducing Amazon Translate – Real-time Language Translation」。

目前還在 Preview,需要申請才能用,不過價目表「Amazon Translate Pricing」已經先出來了 (畢竟已經有競爭對手,可以參考他們的價錢):

Sign up for the Amazon Translate preview today and try the translation service. Learn more about the service by checking out the preview product page or reviewing the technical guides provided in the AWS documentation.

然後目前支援的語言有這些,都是對英文轉換:

At Preview, Amazon Translate supports translation between English and any of the following languages: Arabic, Chinese (Simplified), French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. Support for more languages is coming soon.

Amazon EC2 可以設定 Spread Placement Group 要求打散機器

Amazon EC2 推出的新設計 Spread Placement Group,用來打散 instance:「Introducing Spread Placement Groups for Amazon EC2」。

本來的 Cluster Placement Group 是將機器集中在一起,對於 latency 極為敏感的應用會有幫助 (像是下面有提到 HPC 應用);這次推出的 Spread Placement Group 則是要求跑在不同機器上,打散降低風險:

Spread placement groups help reduce the likelihood of failures within clusters or groups of instances. Amazon EC2 has had cluster placement groups, which enable applications to get the low-latency network performance necessary for tightly-coupled node-to-node communication typical of many HPC applications. Now with spread placement groups, member instances will be placed on distinct hardware, reducing the impact of hardware failures on your applications.

然後也是全區開放:

Spread placement groups are available in all AWS regions. To get started, visit the AWS Management Console, AWS Command Line Interface (CLI), and AWS SDKs.

AWS Lambda 可使用的記憶體空間從 1.5GB 變成 3GB

AWS 是說 AWS Lambda 可用的記憶體空間 double 啦,不過 3008MB 這個數字有點怪...:「AWS Lambda Doubles Maximum Memory Capacity for Lambda Functions」。

You can now allocate 3008MB of memory to your AWS Lambda functions. Previously, the maximum amount of memory available to your functions was 1536MB. Now, it's easier to process workloads with higher memory or denser compute requirements, such as big data analysis, large file processing, and statistical computations.

這個就真的全區都生效了,包括一般人不能註冊的 AWS GovCloud (US) 與中國區:

This feature is available in US East (N. Virginia), US East (Ohio), US West (N. California), US West (Oregon), AWS GovCloud (US), Canada (Central), South America (São Paulo), EU (Frankfurt), EU (Ireland), EU (London), Asia Pacific (Mumbai), Asia Pacific (Seoul), Asia Pacific (Singapore), Asia Pacific (Sydney), Asia Pacific (Tokyo), and China (Beijing).

Amazon API Gateway 可以透過 NLB 接進 VPC 內了

AWS 宣佈可以透過 Network Load BalancerAPI Gateway 接進 VPC 內了:「Amazon API Gateway Supports Endpoint Integrations with Private VPCs」。

You can use API Gateway to create an API endpoint that is integrated with your VPC. You create an endpoint to your VPC by setting up a VPC link between your VPC and a Network Load Balancer (NLB), which is provided by Elastic Load Balancing.

基本上是所有的區域都有了,除了美國政府的區域外:

This feature is now available in US East (N. Virginia), US East (Ohio), US West (Oregon), US West (N. California), Canada (Central), South America (São Paulo), EU (Ireland), EU (Frankfurt), EU (London), Asia Pacific (Singapore), Asia Pacific (Tokyo), Asia Pacific (Sydney), Asia Pacific (Seoul), and Asia Pacific (Mumbai) AWS regions.

是透過 NLB 接進去,而不是 ELB Classic 或是 ALB,可以來想像網路架構是怎麼做的...

Microsoft 虛擬化的兩個消息:Azure 被打臉以及 AWS 推出轉移工具

首先是 VMware 發文打臉 Microsoft 說他們所宣稱的轉移工具 (從 VMware 轉到 Azure 上) 並沒有 VMware 原廠支援:「VMware – The Platform of Choice in the Cloud」。

然後 AWS 則是推出了從 Hyper-V 轉移到 AWS 的工具:「Migrate Hyper-V VMs to AWS with AWS Server Migration Service」,這邊倒是沒提到官方支援...

這臉不只是腫腫的而已了,有種連續技的感覺 XD

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