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Cloudflare 推出 1.1.1.1 的 DNS Resolver 服務

Cloudflare 推出了 1.1.1.1 上的 DNS Resolver 服務:「Announcing 1.1.1.1: the fastest, privacy-first consumer DNS service」,主打項目是隱私以及效能。

然後因為這個 IP 的特殊性,上面有不少奇怪的流量... 而 Cloudflare 跟 APNIC 交換條件後取得這個 IP address 的使用權 (然後 anycast 發出去):

APNIC's research group held the IP addresses 1.1.1.1 and 1.0.0.1. While the addresses were valid, so many people had entered them into various random systems that they were continuously overwhelmed by a flood of garbage traffic. APNIC wanted to study this garbage traffic but any time they'd tried to announce the IPs, the flood would overwhelm any conventional network.

We talked to the APNIC team about how we wanted to create a privacy-first, extremely fast DNS system. They thought it was a laudable goal. We offered Cloudflare's network to receive and study the garbage traffic in exchange for being able to offer a DNS resolver on the memorable IPs. And, with that, 1.1.1.1 was born.

Cloudflare 做了效能比較表 (與 Google Public DNSOpenDNS 比較),可以看到平均速度快不少:

在台灣的話,HiNet 非固定制 (也就是 PPPoE 連線的使用者) 連到 8.8.8.8 有奇怪的 latency:

可以比較同一台機器對 168.95.1.1 的反應速度:

不過如果你是 HiNet 固定制 (固 2 或是固 6 IP 那種,不透過 PPPoE,直接設定 IP address 使用 bridge mode 連線的使用者),兩者的 latency 就差不多,不知道是 Google 還是 HiNet 的架構造成的。

另外比較奇怪的一點是在文章最後面提到的 https://1.1.1.1/,理論上不會發 IP-based 的 SSL certificate 才對?不知道 CEO 老大是有什麼誤解... XD

Visit https://1.1.1.1/ from any device to get started with the Internet's fastest, privacy-first DNS service.

Update:查了資料發現是可以發的,只是大多數的 CA 沒有提供而已...

Facebook 在南韓因為太慢被罰錢???

看到「South Korea fines Facebook $369K for slowing user internet connections」這則新聞,裡面提到 Facebook 的 reroute 行為:

The Korea Communications Commission (KCC) began investigating Facebook last May and found that the company had illegally limited user access, as reported by ABC News. Local South Korean laws prohibit internet services from rerouting users’ connections to networks in Hong Kong and US instead of local ISPs without notifying those users. In a few cases, such rerouting slowed down users’ connections by as much as 4.5 times.

沒有告知使用者就導去香港或是美國的伺服器,聽起來像是 GeoDNS 的架構,以及 Facebook 的 CDN 架構幹的事情?不過在原報導裡面,另外一個指控是:

The KCC probed claims that Facebook intentionally slowed access while it negotiated network usage fees with internet service providers.

另外南韓官方也不承認使用者條款內的告知有效的:

Facebook said it did not violate the law in part because its terms of use say it cannot guarantee its services will operate without delays or interference. KCC officials rejected that argument, saying the terms were unfair. It recommended the company amend its terms of use.

現在看起來應該是要打官司?

Cloudflare 用 ARM 當伺服器的進展...

Twitter 上看到 Matthew Prince (Cloudflare 的創辦人與現任 CEO) 提到了目前的進展,貼出一張兩者用電量的差距 (235W 與 150W):

兩者差了 85W,如果以五年來算就差了 3723 度的電,另外再考慮 PUE 與機櫃空間租用的成本,長期應該是頗有機會換掉原來的 x86 系統。反過來看,短期有轉換測試成本以及 (可能會有的) 較高的故障率 (畢竟是白老鼠 XD),再來是機器本身價錢差距,這些都是會想要知道的...

在 tweet 後 Matthew Prince 有回答一些問題,另外可以看到後續會有更多細節會整理出來,但感覺應該是調整的差不多決定會換過去了?這邊算是延續去年十一月「Cloudflare 測試 ARM 新的伺服器」這篇所做的事情,當時他們拿到 ARM 的工程板在測試,就已經跟 Xeon 打的差不多 (有輸有贏),現在應該又改善更多...

看 retweet 數可以看出來大家還滿期待的,畢竟 ARM 上面的 Linux 本來就因為行動裝置很熱,現在主要還是差在有沒有穩定的伺服器可以用。

Cloudflare Workers 開放使用

Cloudflare 宣佈 Cloudflare Workers 開放使用了:「Everyone can now run JavaScript on Cloudflare with Workers」。先前的消息可以參考「Cloudflare Worker 進入 Open Beta 讓大家玩了...」與「Cloudflare 也能在各端點跑 JavaScript 了」。

價錢還直接做一張圖出來,每一百萬次 request 收費 USD$0.5,然後低消是 USD$5/month (也就是一千萬次 request):

相當於是多了一些選擇,擋在前面做些簡單的事情應該還不錯...

GitHub 在 2/28 遭受的攻擊...

GitHub 在 2/28 遭受 DDoS 攻擊,蠻快就把事故報告丟出來了:「February 28th DDoS Incident Report」。

不過跟 GitHub 其他文章不太一樣,這篇算是 PR 稿吧,簡單來說就是花錢買 Akamai Prolexic 的過濾服務解決... Akamai 方的 PR 稿則是在「Memcached-fueled 1.3 Tbps attacks - The Akamai Blog」這邊可以看到。

17:21 UTC 發現問題,然後判斷超過 100Gbps,所以 17:26 決定讓 Akamai Prolexic 接管過濾:

At 17:21 UTC our network monitoring system detected an anomaly in the ratio of ingress to egress traffic and notified the on-call engineer and others in our chat system. This graph shows inbound versus outbound throughput over transit links:

Given the increase in inbound transit bandwidth to over 100Gbps in one of our facilities, the decision was made to move traffic to Akamai, who could help provide additional edge network capacity. At 17:26 UTC the command was initiated via our ChatOps tooling to withdraw BGP announcements over transit providers and announce AS36459 exclusively over our links to Akamai. Routes reconverged in the next few minutes and access control lists mitigated the attack at their border. Monitoring of transit bandwidth levels and load balancer response codes indicated a full recovery at 17:30 UTC. At 17:34 UTC routes to internet exchanges were withdrawn as a follow-up to shift an additional 40Gbps away from our edge.

就這樣而已,完全就是 PR 稿 XDDD

Cloudflare Worker 進入 Open Beta 讓大家玩了...

去年 Cloudflare 宣佈了 Cloudflare Worker,讓使用者可以在 Edge 端跑 JavaScript (參考「Cloudflare 也能在各端點跑 JavaScript 了」),也就是可以在 Cloudflare 節點上面對 HTTP request 與 HTTP response 做更多事情,類似於 AWSLambda@Edge

不過去年公佈的當時需要申請才有機會用,算是 Private Beta。現在則是開放讓大家玩 (Open Beta) 讓大家幫忙測試了:「Cloudflare Workers is now on Open Beta」。

文件在「Cloudflare Workers Docs」這邊可以取得,就如同去年 Cloudflare 所提到的,程式的撰寫上是透過 Service Worker 的界面,這樣就不用再學一套:

Cloudflare Workers are modeled on the Service Workers available in modern web browsers, and use the same API whenever possible.

現階段 Cloudflare Worker 是免費的,看起來是用這段時間的用量與用法來看要怎麼設計收費機制:

Cloudflare Workers is completely free during the open beta. We do intend on charging for Workers, but we will notify you of our plans at least thirty days before any changes are made.

將找 Origin Server IP 位置自動化的 CloudFlair

Twitter 上看到 CloudFlair 這個工具,可以找被 Cloudflare 保護的網站,將尋找後面 Origin Server 的 IP address 的過程自動化:

這隻程式配合 Censys 的資料去找,而不是自己獨立掃整個 IPv4 address。

另外這隻程式也不保證掃的出來,像是透過 Cloudflare 去年十一月推出的新服務 Wrap,就不需要將 Port 80/443 對 Internet 公開 (參考「Cloudflare 推出的 Wrap 讓你不用在本地端開對外的 Port 80/443」)。

不過還是蠻好玩的工具啦 XDDD

CloudFront 東京加到七個 Edge...

在「Amazon CloudFront announces six new Edge Locations, adding two more in Tokyo, JP, and its first location in Perth, AU」這邊看到 Amazon CloudFront 在東京直接加兩個 Edge,變成七個 Edge 了:

Amazon CloudFront announces six new Edge Locations that are now part of its global network. These six new Edge Locations are located in the following cities:

Perth, Australia; Chennai, India; Rio De Janeiro, Brazil; Los Angeles, California; and two additional Edge Locations in Tokyo, Japan.

再加上大阪還有一個 Edge,日本的量這麼大喔?會跟 Regional Edge 有關嗎...

Cloudflare 推出的 Wrap 讓你不用在本地端開對外的 Port 80/443

Cloudflare 推出了 Wrap 服務:「Want to try Warp? We just enabled the beta for you」。

本地端的 web server 可以只開 127.0.0.1:{80,443},然後 Wrap 的程式會連到 Cloudflare 上面接 web request 回來打到你本地端的電腦上,官方舉的例子用 port 8080:

$ cloudflare-warp --hostname warp.example.com http://localhost:8080

然後也支援多台機器接同一個 hostname (load balancing,順便做 high availability):

$ cloudflare-warp --hostname warp.example.com --lb-pool origin-pool-1 http://localhost:8080

對於安全架構多了一些選擇可以用...

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