OpenSSL 的 ECDH 中,224 bits 速度比 160/192 bits 快的原因

openssl speed ecdh 的時候發現很特別的現象:

Doing 160 bit  ecdh's for 10s: 40865 160-bit ECDH ops in 9.99s
Doing 192 bit  ecdh's for 10s: 34169 192-bit ECDH ops in 9.99s
Doing 224 bit  ecdh's for 10s: 60980 224-bit ECDH ops in 9.99s
Doing 256 bit  ecdh's for 10s: 34298 256-bit ECDH ops in 10.00s
Doing 384 bit  ecdh's for 10s: 9602 384-bit ECDH ops in 10.00s
Doing 521 bit  ecdh's for 10s: 9127 521-bit ECDH ops in 9.99s

原因是 Google 這篇論文的貢獻:「Fast Elliptic Curve Cryptography in OpenSSL」,開頭就提到:

We present a 64-bit optimized implementation of the NIST and SECG-standardized elliptic curve P-224.

而實際成果:

full TLS handshakes using a 1024-bit RSA certificate and ephemeral Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman key exchange over P-224 now run at twice the speed of standard OpenSSL, while atomic elliptic curve operations are up to 4 times faster.

OpenSSLCHANGES 也可以看到對應的修改,不只是 NIST-P224 有被改善,其他的 NIST-P256 與 NIST-P521 也都有被改善:

Add optional 64-bit optimized implementations of elliptic curves NIST-P224, NIST-P256, NIST-P521, with constant-time single point multiplication on typical inputs.

頗特別的...

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